Clovis culture


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Clovis culture,

a group of Paleo-Indians (see Americas, antiquity and prehistory of theAmericas, antiquity and prehistory of the,
study of the origins of the aboriginal peoples of the Americas. Archaeologists believe humans had entered and occupied much of the Americas by the end of the Pleistocene epoch, but the date of their original entry into the Americas is
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) known through artifacts first excavated in the early 1930s near Clovis, N.Mex. The artifacts, including chipped flint points known as Clovis points and a variety of additional stone tools, were found along with remains of large mammals, particularly extinct mammoths. The remains, which date from 10,000 to 9000 B.C., were found widely in North America, especially on the Great Plains. Like Folsom points (see Folsom cultureFolsom culture
, a group of Paleo-Indians (see Americas, antiquity and prehistory of the) known through artifacts first excavated (1926) near Folsom, E of Raton, N.Mex. The artifacts, including chipped flint points known as Folsom points and a variety of other stone tools, were
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), Clovis points show a distinct lengthwise groove (known as fluting) on each face that served to enhance the hafting to spear shafts. Clovis groups are among the earliest definitively dated human populations in the Americas, but there is stone-tool and other evidence of earlier humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
Friedkin site in Texas, implies that Clovis tools could have eventually evolved from the tools found in the Buttermilk Creek Complex and that the Clovis culture, including the use of fluted points, likely developed in North America.
Despite such arguments, the Clovis culture model remained powerful and was soon tied to a three-migration hypothesis proposed by a historical linguist and two physical anthropologists.
To the investigators' surprise, the site contained four spearpoints considered the signature of Clovis culture strewn among bones of two gomphotheres, large mammals smaller than the mammoths and mastodons that Clovis people are known to have hunted.
Clovis culture was widespread between 13,000 and 12,600 years ago, but other styles of toolmaking eventually replaced Clovis spearpoints.
Jenkins said of the paradigm shifting results: "One of the central questions has been whether the technological evolution of hunting tools such as dart and spearheads can be attributed solely to the Clovis culture and the knowledge that these people brought from the Old World.
The scientists thus suspect that people from northeastern Asia spread throughout the New World before purveyors of Clovis culture showed up along the same route.
That's well before the appearance of the Clovis culture, long regarded as the first in the New World.
"Midland Woman was related to the earliest ancestors of every Indian who lives today, and she is very likely the only [known] representative of those who created the Clovis culture" of the earliest Americans, McKinney contends.
The rise of the Clovis culture was thought to coincide with the demise of the woolly mammoth and other slow-moving giants on the continent, leading many researchers to suspect the animals died at the ends of the hunters' spears.
The tool shows that people were living in North America well before the widespread Clovis culture of 12,900 to 12,400 years ago, archaeologist Dennis Jenkins of the University of Oregon in Eugene, told Nature News.
The drop in temperature, plus fires from the impact, wiped out sabertooths, mastodons, and other giant animals, and may have caused the decline of an early civilization known as the Clovis culture.
The sudden recooling killed off mammals such as saber-toothed cats, dire wolves, and mammoths and wiped out some of North America's earliest known human inhabitants, the Clovis culture.