36 30, 32 Clypeasteroida
Clypeaster rosaceus 34, 36 30, 32 Clypeaster subdepressus 34, 36 32 Species Reduced postoral arm length Reduced stomach ([degrees]C) (b) size ([degrees]C) (b) Echinometridae Echinometra viridis 34 34 Echinometra lucunler 34 34 Toxopneustidae Lytechinus williamsi 26 26, 32 Tripneustes ventricosus 32 26, 32 Cidaroidea Eucidaris tribuloides 32 None Clypeasteroida
Clypeaster rosaceus 32 NA Clypeaster subdepressus None 28 Species Reduced larval length ([degrees]C) (b) Echinometridae Echinometra viridis 34 Echinometra lucunler 34 Toxopneustidae Lytechinus williamsi 26, 32 Tripneustes ventricosus 32 Cidaroidea Eucidaris tribuloides 32 Clypeasteroida
Clypeaster rosaceus 32 Clypeaster subdepressus 28, 32 NA, not applicable (stomach is not clearly visible).
europacificus individuals collected on the Pacific coast of Panama and from one Mellita longifissa (Clypeasteroida
:Mellitidae) for use as an outgroup.
The only evidence that bindin is present outside the Echinoida and Arbacioida comes from Moy and Vacquier (1979), who reported that an antibody to bindin of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus reacted with sperm from one species of the order Phymosomatoida and two species of the order Clypeasteroida
. As Vacquier (1998) has pointed out, molecules that mediate fertilization--in contrast to those central to other basic life processes--often differ between taxa.
In a previous study, we indicated that the processes of gastrulation in the sand dollar Scaphechinus mirabilis (Clypeasteroida
) were different from those reported in regular echinoids (Kominami and Masui, 1996).
Delayed metamorphosis: effect on growth and survival of juvenile sand dollars (Echinoidea: Clypeasteroida
Living and fossil genera of the Clypeasteroida
(Echinoidea: Echinodermata): an illustrated key and annotated checklist.