Housing Cooperative

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Housing Cooperative

 

a form of cooperation in which the members are united for joint construction and use of housing units. The housing cooperative originated under capitalism as an expression of the struggle of working people against the housing shortage. The cooperative form of housing construction emerged for the first time in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century and became especially developed in Western Europe in the middle of the 19th century, when the significant growth of the urban population and of industry sharply intensified the house problem.

Under capitalism. In the capitalist countries the housing cooperative exists in various forms and has various purposes and goals. Some cooperatives issue loans to members for the construction and acquisition of houses (Great Britain and the USA); others build houses themselves which are then passed on to the members of the cooperative as private property or rental units (Federal Republic of Germany). The cooperative form of housing construction under capitalism is within the sphere of capital investment and is expected to bring the same profit as the capital invested in construction, industry, or commerce.

Membership in a capitalist housing cooperative requires a great monetary investment, one beyond the possibilities of the working masses; therefore, members usually belong to the petite bourgeoisie, middle classes, and workers’ aristocracy. The high cost of cooperative construction is also related to the right of private ownership of land: the housing and building cooperatives must spend 30-40 percent of all money for acquiring land parcels.

At the present stage of the development of capitalism, the bourgeois state regulates the activity of the housing cooperatives. The intensification of the class struggle forces it to take steps to alleviate the housing problem to some extent and to help develop cooperative housing construction. For example, the state grants credit on favorable terms to private building cooperatives for the construction of cooperative housing units, and in some countries (including the USA, Sweden, and Denmark) it does the construction itself. In such cases the state establishes a lower cost for shares and more favorable terms for payments than do private cooperatives.

Under socialism. The housing cooperative in socialist coun-tries enjoys every kind of support from the state in the interest of the whole society; it strives to expand and accelerate housing construction through attracting financial support from the workers themselves who are in need of better housing. In the USSR, the housing cooperative exists in the form of housing construction cooperatives.

In European socialist countries the housing problem is being solved mostly through cooperative housing construction, which in some countries (Poland, Czechoslovakia) in the beginning of the 1970’s accounted for 70-75 percent and more of all housing construction. The most important principles of the legislation of the socialist countries on the housing cooperative are uniform, but certain differences exist concerning the legal status of owner-ship of the buildings, the procedure of the financing and crediting of the housing constructive, and the organizational structure of the cooperative. In Poland, for example, housing cooperatives are organized in unions, and the unions are organized into cooperative centers. In other socialist countries, housing cooperatives exist independently.

The legislation of the socialist countries recognizes individual membership in the housing cooperative. The legislation in Czechoslovakia and the German Democratic Republic establishes occupation of living quarters by members on a right of use basis; in Bulgaria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia, legislation provides for the passing on of individual apartments to the members of the cooperative on a personal property basis. The extent and definition of the rights of the shareholder in the areas of the use and disposal of living quarters in different countries depend on the type of housing cooperative.

SH. D. CHIKVASHVILI

References in periodicals archive ?
Address : 191 A 2nd Floor, Mahada Complex, Nagpur Chawl Road, Tridal Nagar, Maharashtra Co-Operative Housing Society, Yerawada, Pune, Maharashtra 411006
28 (ANI): Green Acres Co-operative Housing Society Limited on Wednesday cancelled to celebrate Holi celebrations in the view of demise of Bollywood superstar Sridevi.
KARACHI -- The allottees of the land of Pakistan Post Office Co-operative Housing Society, mostly senior citizens, here on Tuesday staged a protest demonstration outside the Karachi Press Club (KPC) against encroachments on their land in Scheme-33.
RAWALPINDI -- The affectees of Pakistan Government Employees Co-operative Housing Society (PGECHS) Rawat, Rawalpindi Sunday held a protest demonstration against the land grabbers here.
TWO Welsh housing groups have joined forces to establish Wales' first urban community co-operative housing project with the support of the Wales Co-operative Centre.
Mumbai: The Bombay High Court on Friday said that the 31-storey Adarsh Co-operative Housing Society Building, originally meant to be a six-storey structure for Kargil war heroes and war widows but has been taken over by politicians, ministers and officers, and must be demolished.
According to an order of FTO Abdur Rauf Chaudhry issued on Friday in the complaint filed by Provincial Government Employees Co-operative Housing Society Limited (PGECHSL), Law and Justice Division observed that the original idea was to tax the income of builders and developers of residential and commercial units and plots but the same was changed into FED converting it from a direct tax into an indirect tax.
Sikandar Mandharo has taken serious note of illegal encroachments on certain amenity plots reserved for schools, religious and recreational purposes in the Co-operative Housing Societies established in urban areas of the Province.
1965 - Parklands Housing Society and Westland Homes Housing Society Ltd were formed independently 1989 - Parklands Housing Society and Walsall and District Housing Association merged to form Walsall Parklands Housing Association 1990 - Accord Housing Association is formed from a merger between Walsall Parklands Housing Associaton and Westland Homes 1991 - Birmingham Co-operative Housing Services, now bchs, joins Accord Housing Association 1998 - Redditch Co-operative Homes is officially formed, a partnership between Accord Housing Association, Redditch Borough Council and the people of Redditch.
2014 was another great year for NCB, as it experienced successful financing throughout the commercial and residential real estate industry nationwide, particularly in the New York co-operative housing market," said Charles E.
They registered themselves as a housing co-operative before teaming up with Birmingham Co-operative Housing Services.
CADWYN Housing Association is currently looking for tenants to occupy properties at their new co-operative housing scheme which is soon to be developed on a site in Ely.

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