The components of co-variances
were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method with program Wombat (Meyer, 2007).
, correlation coefficient is not expressed through units of a measurement .
As we have stressed, GDP volatility will be determined not only by the variances of each of its component sectors discussed in the previous section, but also by changes in the share of each sector in total GDP and the co-variance
Next, we estimate re-insurance supply and demand curves explicitly in order to examine a critical prediction of the financial imperfection models: that intermediary hurdle rates reflect the co-variance
of a particular cat risk with the intermediary's preexisting portfolio.
But it seems more perspicuous to stick with the core idea of supervenience as co-variance
, and regard such co-variance
as invariably a symptom of some other, more fundamental, relation of dependency or determination (identity, entailment, constitution, etc.
This result is true both when the conditional co-variances
of individual asset returns are constant over time, and when they are allowed to vary as a function of economic variables.
Direct and maternal co-variance
components and heritability estimates for body weight at different ages and fleece traits in Afrino Sheep.
Harvey, "The World Price of Co-variance
Risk," Journal of Finance 46 (1991), pp.
On the other hand Wr Vr and Wr+Vr array co-variance
were significant (P = 0.
between these two traits were also similar except that environmental co-variance
from Model 1 was somewhat less than those from the other three models.
Phenotypic and genetic co-variance
structure in milkweed bug life history traits.