coal liquefaction

coal liquefaction

[¦kōl lik·wə′fak·shən]
(chemical engineering)
The conversion of coal (with the exception of anthracite) to petroleum-like hydrocarbon liquids, which are used as refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Coal liquefaction

The conversion of most types of coal (with the exception of anthracite) primarily to petroleumlike hydrocarbon liquids which can be substituted for the standard liquid or solid fuels used to meet transportation, residential, commercial, and industrial fuel requirements. Coal liquids contain less sulfur, nitrogen, and ash, and are easier to transport and use than the parent (solid) coal. These liquids are suitable refinery feedstocks for the manufacture of gasoline, heating oil, diesel fuel, jet fuel, turbine fuel, fuel oil, and petrochemicals.

Liquefying coal involves increasing the ratio of hydrogen to carbon atoms (H:C) considerably—from about 0.8 to 1.5–2.0. This can be done in two ways: (1) indirectly, by first gasifying the coal to produce a synthesis gas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) and then reconstructing liquid molecules by Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis reactions; or (2) directly, by chemically adding hydrogen to the coal matrix under conditions of high pressure and temperature. In either case (with the exception of methanol synthesis), a wide range of products is obtained, from light hydrocarbon gases to heavy liquids. Even waxes, which are solid at room temperature, may be produced, depending on the specific conditions employed.

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Coal liquefaction is among the alternatives for crude oil apart from other fuels such as biomass and oil shale.
Currently, the Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue (DCLR) is the main byproduct produced in the process of the direct coal liquefaction, which accounts for 30% of the total amount of raw coals [18].
Direct coal liquefaction is a significant process for transforming coal to liquid fuel and chemicals, in which considerable coal liquefaction residue (CLR) is generated.
As an important chemical process, direct coal liquefaction (DCL) could be a feasible option to directly convert coals into liquid fuels or chemicals [1, 2].
Contract Awarded to Providing of Engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) services to CSCLC's direct coal liquefaction project.
This is due to the high cost of coal liquefaction technology, coupled with a lack of proper incentives from the government and subsidised local fuel prices.
How are the subsidies comparable for fossil fuel scrubbing costs and advanced fossil technologies such as coal liquefaction? How are the subsidies comparable for nuclear programs to burn the spent fuel on-site at the plant rather than trucking it thousands of miles to throw it in a hole?
Upcoming technology such as Coal Liquefaction and Gasification Technology, Carbon Capture & Storage/Sequestration (CCS), and Efficiency improvement by Ultra Supercritical Pulverized Coal (USPC), and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) are the emerging trends that are likely to boost the market.
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NORDIC BUSINESS REPORT-June 4, 2014-Alfa Laval awarded SEK100m order for heat exchangers from coal liquefaction plant in China
The Government has notified coal gasification and coal liquefaction as end uses under captive mining policy.