coated fabric[′kōd·əd ′fab·rik]
fabric covered on one or both sides with a water-repellent coating made from siccative vegetable oils (oilcloth), concentrated high-styrene synthetic latices (latex-coated fabric), or plasticized polyvinyl chloride (polyvinyl chloride-coated fabric). All of the coatings contain large quantities of fillers. Coated fabrics are produced from smooth and pile fabrics; fabrics are sometimes combined with porolon to make them softer. Coated fabrics are used in consumer goods (tablecloths and various other articles) and in the printing, garment, and furniture industries, as well as for medical purposes. The weight of coated fabric is 300–400 g/m2 or more, depending on its purpose. The main requirements made of coated fabrics are ability to drape, elasticity, absence of stickiness, and water resistance.
The manufacture of oilcloth consists of the following operations: boiling of the drying oil, preparation of the kaolin base coat (consisting of an aqueous suspension of kaolin, an emulsifier, and drying oil) and the pigment base coat, and application of several layers to the previously cleaned and smoothed fabric, with calendering and drying between layers. The colored pattern is then applied, and the fabric is covered with lacquer. Some types of coated fabrics are embossed.
The manufacture of latex-coated fabrics includes preparation of the latex-containing base coats and application of the base coats to the fabric in four to six passes, with intermediate drying, application of color printing, lacquer-coating, embossing, and curing. Polyvinyl chloride-coated fabrics are manufactured from emulsion and suspension types of polyvinyl chloride. Emulsion polyvinyl chloride is blended with plasticizers to form a paste, which is mixed with fillers and pigments. The paste is spread over the fabric and heat-treated (up to 200°C). The semifinished product is calendered and cooled. Mixing of suspension-type polyvinyl chloride with plasticizers produces a swelled powder, which yields a plastic mass (plasticate) upon mixing with fillers, pigments, and stabilizers in heavy equipment with thermomechanical treatment (mixers, mixer-truders, and rolls). A film is then formed at high temperatures and is applied to the fabric. The color pattern is applied after cooling.
M. S. MONASTYRSKAIA