Fungal lung infections in immunocompromised individuals are caused predominantly by Pneumocystis, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, Blastomyces, Coccidioides
, Histoplasma, Mucor, and rarely, Candida organisms.
Cal/OSHA's investigation found that Underground Construction did not evaluate the hazard of performing digging work in areas known to contain the coccidioides
Valley fever is caused by inhalation of Coccidioides
spores, and even one spore can cause disease (Huang, Bristow, Shafir, & Sorvillo, 2012).
Coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley fever, is a disease of growing public health concern and is caused by 2 closely related fungal species, Coccidioides
immitis and C.
A rather rare finding in pulmonary imaging, the cavity formation may result from bacterial infections such as microaerophilic streptococci, viridans streptococci, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Acinetobacter species, Escherichia coli, Legionella species, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Nocardia asteroides, mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nontuberculous mycobacteria and Mycobacterium avium complex, fungi such as Cryptococcus neoformans, Coccidioides
, Aspergillus and mucormycosis, parasites such as Paragonimus westermani and Echinococcus genus, and viral infections such as papilloma virus [1,2].
Coccidioidomycosis (Valley fever) is an infectious disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides
spores; approximately 40% of infected persons experience signs and symptoms including fever, cough, fatigue, chest pain, shortness of breath, and rash.
Effects of recombinant gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor on in-vitro interactions of human mononuclear phagocytes with Coccidioides
Five days after bronchoscopy, Coccidioides
antibody by complement fixation (CF) assay returned positive at 1:8, Coccidioides
IgM by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was positive, and Coccidioides
IgG by ELISA was negative.
Coccidioidomycosis, commonly referred to as valley fever, is caused by Coccidioides
immitis and Coccidioides
posadasii, two nearly identical species of pathogenic fungi most commonly found in southern Arizona, central California, southern New Mexico, and West Texas.
Blood and sputum cultures, autoimmune serologic tests, and serologic tests for Coccidioides
and Cryptococcus were negative.
The fungal conidia were round structures approximately 30-40 micrometers in diameter with 2 micrometers of thick pale basophilic cell walls and heterogeneous amorphous pale amphophilic central material, consistent with immature Coccidioides
immitis spherules (Figure 1).