Coccidiosis


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coccidiosis

[käk¦sid·ē¦ō·səs]
(medicine)
The state of or the conditions associated with being infected by coccidia.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Coccidiosis

 

a disease of animals, less commonly of man, that results from the penetration of parasitic unicellular animals, Coccidia, into the epithelial cells of the intestine. In the USSR, isolated cases of the disease in man have been reported in Uzbekistan, the Caucasus, and the Crimea.

In man. The Coccidia Isospora belli and Isospora hominis are the causative agents of the disease in man. Ingestion of food or water contaminated by oocysts that were excreted with feces by animals with coccidiosis and that had matured for two to five days in soil spreads the disease. Each mature oocyst contains eight sporozoites. In the human intestine, the sporozoites emerge from the oocysts and penetrate and destroy the epithelium, causing an inflammation and occasionally ulcers. This is followed by fever (as high as 39°C), weakness, loss of appetite, and diarrhea. Treatment calls for sulfanilamides and antiprotozoan preparations. Coccidiosis can be prevented through the observance of the rules of hygiene.

In animals. Coccidiosis strikes cattle, sheep, goats, swine, rabbits, dogs, poultry (chickens, turkeys, ducks, and geese), freshwater and saltwater fish, and wild mammals and birds. Coccidiosis of domestic animals is widespread in most countries and does great damage, especially on poultry and rabbit farms, where it often occurs as an enzootic disease destroying numerous young. An outbreak among animals usually occurs in spring or fall.

The sources of infection are contaminated grasses, hay, soil on ranges and poultry yards, litter in poultry houses or cages, and drinking water. Most of the coccidial species concentrate in the mucous membrane of different portions of the intestine and interfere with its activity. The most common symptoms of coccidiosis in animals are inhibition, loss of appetite, rapid and severe emaciation, and diarrhea. Paralysis and spasms of individual muscle groups are frequent. The diseased animals are isolated. Various coccidiostatic agents are used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Improved feeding and maintenance of the animals are also helpful. The prophylactic measures include destruction of oocysts in the environment, keeping adult and young animals apart, and strict observance of the rules of sanitation and zoohygiene.

REFERENCES

Schensnovich, V. B., and A. I. Metelkin. “Koktsidioz.” In Rukovodstvo po mikrobiologii, klinike i epidemiologii infektsionnykh boleznei, vol. 9. Moscow, 1968. Pages 208–11.
Leitman, M. Z. Amebiaz, koktsidioz i balantidiaz. Tashkent, 1968.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Geeroms, "Efficacy of toltrazuril against intestinal and hepatic coccidiosis in rabbits," Veterinary Parasitology, vol.
Coccidiosis is one of the most dangerous intestinal protozoan diseases in broiler resulting in stunt growth and feed efficiency (Tanweer et al., 2014; Chand et al., 2016).
One of the methods of controlling coccidiosis is immuno-stimulation (immunomodulation) in which efficiency and functionality of immune system is enhanced against infections of coccidiosis.
In the last few years, in-ovo vaccination technology has been extended for other vaccines, including live and recombinant vaccines, and efforts to extend it for other viral, bacterial and coccidiosis vaccines are in progress.
So, if your vet still suspects giardiasis or coccidiosis, she will likely run another, higher-tech test.
A few studies were conducted in the central part of Ethiopia with 68.1% of calves reported with coccidiosis [6] and 24.9% of cattle infected in a retrospective laboratory report [7].
Coccidiosis is an important protozoal disease of genus Eimeria, leading to high mortality and poor growth rate in poultry production, causing huge economic and health losses of about three billions US dollars per year (Dalloul and Lillehoj, 2006).
It is concluded that immunization with specific sporozoites adjuvanted with FCA by parenteral administration in broiler chickens resulted in an early but protective humoral immune response (IgG) better than non- adjuvanted group and unimmunized infected control, however lower than commercial vaccine administered group against caecal coccidiosis. The performance of the adjuvant vaccinated group in terms of mean bodyweight gain, mean lesion score and faecal oocyst output was superior to that of non- adjuvant vaccinated group and unimmunized infected control, however it's mean bodyweight gain inferior to that of commercial vaccine administered group and it's mean lesion score and OPG of faeces inferior to that of anticoccidial administered group.
Very few of the chickens ended up falling sick with coccidiosis, Sand said.
Coccidiosis, a common and costly poultry disease, is caused by tiny, single-celled parasites.
On day 14 after administration of different treatments, half of the chickens (n = 15) from each group were used for immunological evaluation and the remaining half for evaluation of protective efficacy against coccidiosis.