cochineal

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cochineal

(kŏchĭnēl`, kŏch`ĭnēl), natural dye obtained from an extract of the bodies of the females of the cochineal bug (Dactylopius confusus) found on certain species of cactus, especially Nopalea coccinellifera, native to Mexico and Central America. The insects' bodies contain the pigment called carminic acid, which is obtained by subjecting a mass of the crushed insects to steam or dry heat; such large numbers of the insects are needed to produce a small amount of dye that the cost is high. Once commonly used as a scarlet-red mordant dye for wool and as a food color, cochineal has been largely replaced by synthetic products. It is used chiefly now as a biological stain.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cochineal

 

the general name for several species of insects of various families of the suborder Cocciodea, the females of which are used to make a red dye called carmine. Mexican cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), the most highly valued species, lives on the cochineal cactus. Native to Mexico, it is also cultivated in Central America, Western Europe (Spain), North Africa, and eastern Asia and has almost entirely replaced other species on the world market. Other cochineal species include Armenian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii ), which is found in Armenia on the roots of grasses, and Polish cochineal (P. polonicd), found in Western Europe and the European USSR on the roots of strawberries and other herbaceous plants. In the 20th century the development of synthetic dyes has sharply reduced the cultivation of cochineal insects, although natural carmine is still used in some industries, such as food processing and perfume manufacture, and for staining microscopic preparations.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

cochineal

[′käch·ə‚nēl]
(chemistry)
A red dye made of the dried bodies of the female cochineal insect (Coccus cacti), found in Central America and Mexico; used as a biological stain and indicator.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cochineal

1. a Mexican homopterous insect, Dactylopius coccus, that feeds on cacti
2. 
a. the colour of this dye
b. (as adjective): cochineal shoes
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In Britain, Coccinella septempunctata utilizes a wide range of prey types and habitats, whereas Coccinella hieroglyphica is mainly found on heather, where it forages on the heather aphid, Aphis callunae, and on larvae of the heather leaf beetle, Lochmaea suturalis [35].
The present research work was conducted to evaluate the natural diets on the biology of Coccinella transversalis Fab.
Consumption rates and predatory activity of adult and fourth instar larvae of the seven spot ladybird, Coccinella Septempunctata L.
Two ladybird species in particular have been spectacular in their success as invaders in North America: Coccinella septempunctata Linn.
Ide, "The foraging behaviors of larvae of the ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L., (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) towards ant-tended and non-ant-tended aphids," Ecological Research, vol.
Coccinella trifasciata###-###-###-###01###-###-###-###01###Feed on Aphids
Were Hippodantia convergens, Harmonia axyridis, Cycloneda munda, Coccinella septempunctata, Harpalus pennsylvanicus and Pterostichus melanarius.
Os bioensaios seguiram a metodologia proposta por membros da International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) para uso com as especies Aleochara bilineata (Gyllenhal, 1810) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), Coccinella septempunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Propylea quatuordecimpunctata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) e Harmonia axyridis (Pallas, 1773) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) (SAMSOE-PETERSEN, 1992; JANSEN & HAUTIER, 2006), porem, neste estudo, adaptada para a especie C.
Location Arsef/ Local UB1 USDA-ARS (1788) Helicoverpa virescens Spain UB2 USDA-ARS (2041) Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Philippines UB3 USDA-ARS (5278) Bemicia tabaci USA UB4 USDA-ARS (2417) Emmalocera depressella India UB5 USDA-ARS (2597) Hyblaea puer India UB6 USDA-ARS (6646) Spodoptera litura India UB7 USDA-ARS(4027) Coccinella septumpunctata Denmark UB8 USDA-ARS(1166) Helicoverpa armigera Spain UB9 USDA-ARS(2033) Coccinella sp.
Eleven spotted beetle, Coccinella undecimpunctata (Linnaeus)