cochineal

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cochineal

(kŏchĭnēl`, kŏch`ĭnēl), natural dye obtained from an extract of the bodies of the females of the cochineal bug (Dactylopius confusus) found on certain species of cactus, especially Nopalea coccinellifera, native to Mexico and Central America. The insects' bodies contain the pigment called carminic acid, which is obtained by subjecting a mass of the crushed insects to steam or dry heat; such large numbers of the insects are needed to produce a small amount of dye that the cost is high. Once commonly used as a scarlet-red mordant dye for wool and as a food color, cochineal has been largely replaced by synthetic products. It is used chiefly now as a biological stain.

Cochineal

 

the general name for several species of insects of various families of the suborder Cocciodea, the females of which are used to make a red dye called carmine. Mexican cochineal (Dactylopius coccus), the most highly valued species, lives on the cochineal cactus. Native to Mexico, it is also cultivated in Central America, Western Europe (Spain), North Africa, and eastern Asia and has almost entirely replaced other species on the world market. Other cochineal species include Armenian cochineal (Porphyrophora hamelii ), which is found in Armenia on the roots of grasses, and Polish cochineal (P. polonicd), found in Western Europe and the European USSR on the roots of strawberries and other herbaceous plants. In the 20th century the development of synthetic dyes has sharply reduced the cultivation of cochineal insects, although natural carmine is still used in some industries, such as food processing and perfume manufacture, and for staining microscopic preparations.

cochineal

[′käch·ə‚nēl]
(chemistry)
A red dye made of the dried bodies of the female cochineal insect (Coccus cacti), found in Central America and Mexico; used as a biological stain and indicator.

cochineal

1. a Mexican homopterous insect, Dactylopius coccus, that feeds on cacti
2. 
a. the colour of this dye
b. (as adjective): cochineal shoes
References in periodicals archive ?
Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, a native species once widely distributed in North America (Gordon, 1985), was also tested in 2011.
Species native to the Finger Lakes region that were collected in washups by other researchers but were conspicuously absent from our study include; Anatis mali, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella transversoguttata, C.
Suitability of Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) and Aleyrodes proletella (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) as prey for Coccinella undecimpunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
Veliidae Microvelia horvathi Coleoptera Staphylinidae Lundblad Paederus fuscipes Curtis Stenusmacies Sharp Coccinellidae Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius, 1781 Synharmonia octomaculata Fabricius Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fabricius) Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus) Alesia discolor Fabricius Propylea japonica (Thunberg 1781) Coccinella sp.
Influence of different plant genotypes on some biological parameters of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis and its predator, Coccinella septempunctata under laboratory conditions.
They include Brachyacantha ursina (Fabricius), Chilocorus bivulnerus Mulsant, Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, C.
Comparative life- history studies of Nearctic and Palearctic populations of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).
The 5 lady beetle species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) included the convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville, the pink spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), the seven-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata L.
16 17 9 10 Feb E M L NR Aleyrodidae -- 4 -- -- Aphididae 6 6 1 3 Cecidomyiidae 4 6 8 1 Chalcidoidea 33 26 33 31 Chrysomella 2 2 2 -- Cicadellidae 7 2 1 7 Coccinella (Hippodamia spp.