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see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a coding unit, a set of three nucleotides (triplet) that determines the position of a particular amino acid in a polypeptide chain synthesized under the control of a gene. A codon is a unit of the genetic code by means of which all the genetic information is “recorded” in DNA and RNA molecules. Many amino acids have more than one codon (so-called degeneracy of the code). There are three codons which do not code amino acids; rather, they determine the beginning or end of the synthesis of a polypeptide chain.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


The basic unit of the genetic code, comprising sequential, nonoverlapping three-nucleotide sequences in messenger ribonucleic acid, each of which is translated into one amino acid; 61 of the 64 codons code for a specific protein synthesis; the other 3 are stop codons that specify termination of the growing polypeptide or protein chain.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
These codon usage patterns in protein coding genes were in accordance with the overall bias against G, because G was the least common third position nucleotide in all codons except for glycine, in which G was more frequent than T.
In patients with gastric cancer and healthy controls, mutations known in the literature were detected in the XRCC1 gene codons 194, 280, and 399.
Oligonucleotides used to amplify the polymorphic sites of interest were: (A) XPD C22541A at codon 156 of the exon 6(rs238406), (B) XPD G23592A at codon 312 in the exon 10 (rs1799793), and (C) XPD A35931C at codon 751 in the exon 23(rs13181).
Most used codons for each amino acid of Salt Stress Responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and Solanum lycopersicum (Sly) and their RSCU values (in parenthesis).
By changing an A to an I within a codon, its "readout" (translation to amino acid) within the ribosome can be altered, leading to missense mutations (substitution of one amino acid for another), nonsense mutations (substitution of an amino acid for a STOP codon), or STOP suppressions (substitution of a STOP condon for a sense codon, leading to a product with some random C terminal tail).
Section 3 explains the numeric coding of nucleotide bases, the prevention of false start/stop codons, and the NHS and CHS methods in detail.
With new base pairs, the cells could make new codons, and those new genetic words held the blueprints for compounds that were previously impossible for cells to make.
IVSI-5 (G-C), FSC 8/9 (+G), FSC-41/42 (-TTCT), 619 bp deletion, IVSI-1 (G-T), Codon 15 (G-A), Codon 16 (-C) and Cap+1 (A-C).
There were 70 (9.7%) isolates with MUT 3 band representing mutation at codon S531L, 6 (0.8%) isolates with MUT1 band indicating mutation at codon D516V, 5 (0.6%) isolates with MUT2A band indicating mutation at codon H526Y, 3 (0.41%) isolates with MUT2B representing mutation at codon H526D.
(9) Mutations at codon 407, 410, 420, 425 (456 now) and insertions between 408 and 409 have been confirmed to be associated with rifampicin resistance and were also supported by MFP studies.
K-ras mutation in codons 12 and 13 was evaluated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue by PCR and DNA sequencing by the Sanger method as described by Nagasaka et al.