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see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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a coding unit, a set of three nucleotides (triplet) that determines the position of a particular amino acid in a polypeptide chain synthesized under the control of a gene. A codon is a unit of the genetic code by means of which all the genetic information is “recorded” in DNA and RNA molecules. Many amino acids have more than one codon (so-called degeneracy of the code). There are three codons which do not code amino acids; rather, they determine the beginning or end of the synthesis of a polypeptide chain.


The basic unit of the genetic code, comprising sequential, nonoverlapping three-nucleotide sequences in messenger ribonucleic acid, each of which is translated into one amino acid; 61 of the 64 codons code for a specific protein synthesis; the other 3 are stop codons that specify termination of the growing polypeptide or protein chain.
References in periodicals archive ?
Diversification: degenerate codons are synthesized using trimer phosphoramidites corresponding to 20 natural amino acids, which exclude stop codons.
The activities were designed to teach students how to read a messenger RNA (mRNA) codon sequence and match that codon up with an amino acid.
The 'wobble rules' assume that only 48 codons can be distinguished owing to the physiochemical limitations of the translational mechanism and the resulting codon graph converges to 20 amino acids.
When expressed in yeast, however, the codons of a human gene may not be optimal for the high expression of recombinant protein.
Looking more closely, the team found that instead of reading the stop sign as "stop," ribosomes interpreted the pseudouridine-containing codon as an instruction to insert one of the amino acids serine, threonine, phenylalanine or tyrosine into the protein.
The detection of double mutations at codons 12 and 13 by direct sequencing corresponded to 1.
The amplification of codons 194 and 399 resulted in the product of 487 and 595bp respectively.
The words strung together in an RNA -- like beads in a necklace -- are read in the ribosome and then the ribosome assembles for every codon its appropriate amino acid.
html), the codon frequencies of exon 6 of goat POU1F1 gene was calculated.
Variations in the three codons give rise to five common prion haplotypes in U.
Human H1N1 from 1918 through 1947 contains full-length PB1-F2, whereas human H1N1 beginning in 1956 has a truncated PB1-F2 after codon 57.
These are valine (V) or alanine (A) at codon 13 6, arginine (R) or histidine (H) at codon 154, and glutamine (Q), arginine (R), or histidine (H) at codon 171.