usage patterns in protein coding genes were in accordance with the overall bias against G, because G was the least common third position nucleotide in all codons
except for glycine, in which G was more frequent than T.
In patients with gastric cancer and healthy controls, mutations known in the literature were detected in the XRCC1 gene codons
194, 280, and 399.
Oligonucleotides used to amplify the polymorphic sites of interest were: (A) XPD C22541A at codon
156 of the exon 6(rs238406), (B) XPD G23592A at codon
312 in the exon 10 (rs1799793), and (C) XPD A35931C at codon
751 in the exon 23(rs13181).
Most used codons
for each amino acid of Salt Stress Responsive genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ath) and Solanum lycopersicum (Sly) and their RSCU values (in parenthesis).
By changing an A to an I within a codon
, its "readout" (translation to amino acid) within the ribosome can be altered, leading to missense mutations (substitution of one amino acid for another), nonsense mutations (substitution of an amino acid for a STOP codon
), or STOP suppressions (substitution of a STOP condon for a sense codon
, leading to a product with some random C terminal tail).
A rare mutation in rpoB gene at codon
522 and deletion of codon
518 was also reported.
Section 3 explains the numeric coding of nucleotide bases, the prevention of false start/stop codons
, and the NHS and CHS methods in detail.
With new base pairs, the cells could make new codons
, and those new genetic words held the blueprints for compounds that were previously impossible for cells to make.
IVSI-5 (G-C), FSC 8/9 (+G), FSC-41/42 (-TTCT), 619 bp deletion, IVSI-1 (G-T), Codon
15 (G-A), Codon
16 (-C) and Cap+1 (A-C).
There were 70 (9.7%) isolates with MUT 3 band representing mutation at codon
S531L, 6 (0.8%) isolates with MUT1 band indicating mutation at codon
D516V, 5 (0.6%) isolates with MUT2A band indicating mutation at codon
H526Y, 3 (0.41%) isolates with MUT2B representing mutation at codon
(9) Mutations at codon
407, 410, 420, 425 (456 now) and insertions between 408 and 409 have been confirmed to be associated with rifampicin resistance and were also supported by MFP studies.
K-ras mutation in codons
12 and 13 was evaluated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue by PCR and DNA sequencing by the Sanger method as described by Nagasaka et al.