Cofactors


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Cofactors

 

in biochemistry, substances necessary for the catalytic activity of a particular enzyme. Cofactors are essential constituents of most enzyme systems and are classified as fol-lows: prosthetic groups, which are strongly bonded with the protein carrier apoenzyme; coenzymes, which are relatively easy to separate from apoenzymes; and metal ions (metallic coenzymes). No clearly defined boundary exists between the terms “cofactor,” “coenzyme,” and “prosthetic group.”

REFERENCES

“Fermenty.” Edited by A. E. Braunshtein. Moscow, 1964. (Osnovy molekuliarnoi biologii.) Page 148.
Kretovich, V. L. Vvedenie v enzimologiiu. Moscow, 1967.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
where I is the interval of the linkage group analyzed and delimited by two fully informative markers loci (A and B); [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] are the known coefficients for the [k.sub.1]th and [k.sub.2]th markers selected as cofactors of the common founder and second founder of individual j from population i, taking the value of 1 or 0 depending on the markers haplotype; [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] and [MATHEMATICAL EXPRESSION NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII.] are the associated regression coefficients.
Particularly for the OLS estimation, the cofactors corresponding to the main diagonal entries of the inverse were inspected for nonparametric properties.
Nutritional cofactor therapy commonly includes L-carnitine and may also include the B-complex of vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid, biotin, cobalamin and folic acid), vitamin C and fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, K in different combinations.
The detailed reactions of each of these enzymes are not the subject of this article, but single nuclear polymorphisms or cofactor deficiencies could lead to poor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) status.
A small subset of monomers, conventionally known as cofactors, are a part of and essential to the making of all metabolomes.
"Collectively, our results establish the diet-dependent influence of Pparg2 Pro12Ala variant on metabolic control via modulated cofactor interaction and changes in gene expression patterns in mice," concluded the researchers.
Patient 2: You supplement the patient with 150 mg 5-HTP, 1,500 tyrosine, and required cofactors twice daily and see the patient in one week.
Multiple-QTL models allow statistical control of genetic background noise due to QTL on other portions of the genome that are segregating in the population using multiple regression on marker cofactors (Jansen and Stem 1994; Jannink and Jansen 2001).
Natural HRT usually relies on wild yam or soy derived progesterone and cofactors applied via a topical skin cream.
Respiratory viruses and mycoplasma as cofactors for epidemic group A meningococcal meningitis.
Van Kessel's study, which controlled for several important cofactors such as duration of the second stage of labor and birth weight, this question was not addressed.