cognitive dissonance

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Related to Cognitive consistency: cognitive dissonance

cognitive dissonance

[¦käg·nəd·iv ′dīs·ən·əns]
(psychology)
Psychological conflict that results from incongruous beliefs and attitudes held simultaneously.

cognitive dissonance

the experience of competing, opposing or contradictory thoughts, attitudes or actions leading to a feeling of tension and the need to achieve consonance. The term was introduced by Festinger (1957). In his definition dissonant cognitions exist when Belief A implies the negation of Belief B. For example, ‘Smoking causes lung cancer’ is dissonant with ‘I smoke’. The dissonance can be reduced in a variety of ways, either by adjusting Belief A or Belief B. Belief A could be adjusted by disregarding medical reports that confirm the belief and by paying particular attention to sceptical reports. Belief B can be adjusted by smoking less, or smoking tobacco of a low carcinogenic type.
References in periodicals archive ?
In sum, labeling theory and cognitive consistency theory work together to explain how salespeople may accept and reinforce being a negative "deviant," particularly if they happen to experience one or more of the factors of depression, LSP, or EE.
That is, to meet their need for self-consistency and cognitive consistency, customers who feel loyal to a salesperson will tend to behave in a loyal way toward the firm.
According to cognitive consistency theory, people seek consistency between attitudes and cognitions (Osgood and Tannenbaum 1955; Festinger 1957; Abelson, Aronson, McGru ire, Newcomb, Rosenberg and Tannenbaum 1968; Yen et al.
of WA1/4rzburg, Germany) assemble 21 chapters by psychologists and others from North America, Europe, and Israel who examine the role of cognitive consistency in aspects of social cognition.
Steele and Liu (1983) investigated the influence of dissonance on self-perception and found that self-affirming thoughts and actions restored cognitive consistency. These authors discovered that in cases where discrepant information threatened or challenged one's perceived image of self, acts that bolstered or re-affirmed important dimensions of the self-concept diminished dissonance by re-casting the self in a more positive light.
Cognitive consistency (a kind of peace of mind) can therefore be dangerous, since when confronted with contradictory information, the brain's defence mechanisms can filter out unwanted information and alter its memory of such decisions.
For the purpose of summarizing cognitive consistency theory cognitions can be defined as; interest attachment attitude, contact emotion, disparate belief values or a mixture of these.
The challenge for individuals is to reconcile political aspirations with realities while preserving cognitive consistency between these two components of the belief system.
At the opposite end of the spectrum, farthest from rationality, Hybel places cognitive consistency theory where decision-makers, while trying to understand and solve problems, are also attempting to ensure that their beliefs and values remain mutually consistent.
If appeals to cognitive consistency and unity don't work, and if the belief in an immortal soul has an important function in someone's cognitive economy, then faith may well continue unperturbed.
(1973), "Cognitive Consistency and Novelty Seeking," in S.
Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook (pp.

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