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time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. Physiological changes lead to sexual maturity and usually occur during the first several years of the period. This process of physical changes is known as puberty, and it generally takes place in girls between the ages of 8 and 14, and boys between the ages of 9 and 16. In puberty, the pituitary gland increases its production of gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the production of predominantly estrogen in girls, and predominantly testosterone in boys. Estrogen and testosterone are responsible for breast development, hair growth on the face and body, and deepening voice. These physical changes signal a range of psychological changes, which manifest themselves throughout adolescence, varying significantly from person to person and from one culture to another. Psychological changes generally include questioning of identity and achievement of an appropriate sex role; movement toward personal independence; and social changes in which, for a time, the most important factor is peer group relations. Adolescence in Western societies tends to be a period of rebellion against adult authority figures, often parents or school officials, in the search for personal identity. Many psychologists regard adolescence as a byproduct of social pressures specific to given societies, not as a unique period of biological turmoil. In fact, the classification of a period of life as "adolescence" is a relatively recent development in many Western societies, one that is not recognized as a distinct phase of life in many other cultures.


See T. Hine, The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager (1999).

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the stage in the LIFE COURSE between childhood and adulthood marked by the beginnings of adult sexuality but coming before full adult status or final detachment from the FAMILY OF ORIGIN OR ORIENTATION.

In simple societies the passage from childhood to adulthood is often marked by rites de passage (see RITUAL), or by the provision of young mens (and less often young women's) AGE SETS. However, it is within modern societies, with their distinctive emphasis on YOUTH CULTURE, fostered by the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION, that adolescence has achieved a particular importance. In these societies, in contrast to more TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES, adolescents must choose their CAREERS and sexual partners as well as their general LIFESTYLE. Thus adolescence, the time of educational examinations and entry into work, is also a stage in the life cycle which is associated with individual experimentation in sexual and leisure behaviour. It may also be a time for questioning received values, and of rebellion against parental patterns of behaviour (see also GENERATION). The search for independence, and the heightened sense of self-awareness and uncertainty about SELF, can also lead to psychological crisis and psychological disturbance. See also YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, DELINQUENCY.

Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000


Stage in the cycle of erosion following youth and preceding maturity.
The period of life from puberty to maturity.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


novel of young love. [Am. Lit.: Booth Tarkington Seventeen in Magill I, 882]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Cognitive dysfunction is associated with poor diabetes control in older adults.
Rasmussen, and ISPOCD Group, "Long-term consequences of postoperative cognitive dysfunction," Anesthesiology, vol.
Cognitive dysfunction is acknowledged to be one of the most significant symptoms of schizophrenia and has a predominant role in the functional outcomes of the illness.
3 The ACR's revised nomenclature emphasised on cognitive dysfunction as being a major neuropsychiatric syndrome and defined it as "significant deficit in any or all of the following cognitive functions: complex attention, executive skills (e.
"Although we tell owners to ignore attention-seeking completely with younger dogs, that is not always true with older dogs, especially those with cognitive dysfunction because they may become more anxious." You can comfort them and use neutraceuticals and psychoactive medication to reduce their anxiety.
If older cats are having anxiety or cognitive dysfunction syndrome and not sleeping well, we may try an anti-anxiety medication that will help them relax and hopefully sleep restfully."
Ejaz Ahmad Vohra in his remarks commended the speaker for a clear message to recognize cognitive dysfunction in depression which needs to be treated effectively.
Though it's long been known that MDD is associated with cognitive dysfunction for many patients, no drug has yet been approved specifically to improve cognitive function in those suffering from depression.
At the end of the trial, both doses of vortioxetine resulted in better improvement than placebo on a composite score of cognitive dysfunction (mean treatment effects of 0.36 for 10 mg and 0.33 for 20 mg, both P less than .0001).
In addition, an imaging study [33] found that cerebellar atrophy might play a role in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in patients with PSP due to a disruption of its modulation on executive functions.

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