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time of life from onset of puberty to full adulthood. The exact period of adolescence, which varies from person to person, falls approximately between the ages 12 and 20 and encompasses both physiological and psychological changes. Physiological changes lead to sexual maturity and usually occur during the first several years of the period. This process of physical changes is known as puberty, and it generally takes place in girls between the ages of 8 and 14, and boys between the ages of 9 and 16. In puberty, the pituitary gland increases its production of gonadotropins, which in turn stimulate the production of predominantly estrogen in girls, and predominantly testosterone in boys. Estrogen and testosterone are responsible for breast development, hair growth on the face and body, and deepening voice. These physical changes signal a range of psychological changes, which manifest themselves throughout adolescence, varying significantly from person to person and from one culture to another. Psychological changes generally include questioning of identity and achievement of an appropriate sex role; movement toward personal independence; and social changes in which, for a time, the most important factor is peer group relations. Adolescence in Western societies tends to be a period of rebellion against adult authority figures, often parents or school officials, in the search for personal identity. Many psychologists regard adolescence as a byproduct of social pressures specific to given societies, not as a unique period of biological turmoil. In fact, the classification of a period of life as "adolescence" is a relatively recent development in many Western societies, one that is not recognized as a distinct phase of life in many other cultures.


See T. Hine, The Rise and Fall of the American Teenager (1999).


the stage in the LIFE COURSE between childhood and adulthood marked by the beginnings of adult sexuality but coming before full adult status or final detachment from the FAMILY OF ORIGIN OR ORIENTATION.

In simple societies the passage from childhood to adulthood is often marked by rites de passage (see RITUAL), or by the provision of young mens (and less often young women's) AGE SETS. However, it is within modern societies, with their distinctive emphasis on YOUTH CULTURE, fostered by the MASS MEDIA OF COMMUNICATION, that adolescence has achieved a particular importance. In these societies, in contrast to more TRADITIONAL SOCIETIES, adolescents must choose their CAREERS and sexual partners as well as their general LIFESTYLE. Thus adolescence, the time of educational examinations and entry into work, is also a stage in the life cycle which is associated with individual experimentation in sexual and leisure behaviour. It may also be a time for questioning received values, and of rebellion against parental patterns of behaviour (see also GENERATION). The search for independence, and the heightened sense of self-awareness and uncertainty about SELF, can also lead to psychological crisis and psychological disturbance. See also YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT, DELINQUENCY.


Stage in the cycle of erosion following youth and preceding maturity.
The period of life from puberty to maturity.


novel of young love. [Am. Lit.: Booth Tarkington Seventeen in Magill I, 882]
References in periodicals archive ?
Co-author Richard Saitz noted that people with HIV infection have many reasons to have cognitive dysfunction, from the virus itself to medications for HIV infection and related conditions, particularly as they age.
Cognitive dysfunction is acknowledged to be one of the most significant symptoms of schizophrenia and has a predominant role in the functional outcomes of the illness.
3 The ACR's revised nomenclature emphasised on cognitive dysfunction as being a major neuropsychiatric syndrome and defined it as "significant deficit in any or all of the following cognitive functions: complex attention, executive skills (e.
If older cats are having anxiety or cognitive dysfunction syndrome and not sleeping well, we may try an anti-anxiety medication that will help them relax and hopefully sleep restfully.
A relationship has been found between anaesthetics, surgery and cognitive dysfunction in several in vitro and animal studies that have shown effects on neuronal development.
The possible utility of vortioxetine for alleviating cognitive dysfunction in MDD came from an exploratory clinical trial, termed ELDERLY, whose predetermined endpoints included measures of cognitive function.
inhalational reduces the risk of delayed cognitive dysfunction [7], Cerebral oxygen saturation (SC02), which represents oxygen balance in the brain, has also been shown to be an effective prognostic factor for POCD [8].
While clinical data that involve substances--natural or pharmaceutical--to reduce or reverse cancer-related cognitive dysfunction are limited, identification of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms provides reasonable targets for a therapeutic approach.
Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery?
PHILADELPHIA -- Children and young adults with increased systolic and diastolic indices and decreased nocturnal dipping on ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are at increased risk for cognitive dysfunction.
Louise has arrived at the conclusion that Alzheimer's Disease is not hereditary but a response to a wide range of medical conditions and trauma and, as in her mother's case, can be a reaction to surgical anaesthesia with long-term ramifications beyond the accepted parameters of Post-Operative Cognitive dysfunction (she cites a study in which participants were 35% more likely to have developed dementia if they had experienced anaesthesia during the previous decade).
It describes chromatin architecture, details DNA methylation and histone acetylation, explains how normal cellular functions are affected by epigenetics and how epigenetic modification patterns can be reversed to create pluripotent stem cells, and discusses the evidence for epigenetic involvement in disease such as cognitive dysfunction and cancer.

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