cognition

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cognition

the mental act or process by which knowledge is acquired, including perception, intuition, and reasoning

Cognition

The internal structures and processes that are involved in the acquisition and use of knowledge, including sensation, perception, attention, learning, memory, language, thinking, and reasoning. Cognitive scientists propose and test theories about the functional components of cognition based on observations of an organism's external behavior in specific situations.

Cognition throughout life can be broadly described as an interaction between knowledge-driven processes and sensory processes; and between controlled processes and automatic processes. Over time, there is a trade-off between the amount of surface information that is retained in the internal representation of objects or events (bottom-up processing) and the amount of meaning that is incorporated (top-down processing). Following exposure to a stimulus, a sensory representation (sometimes called an image, icon, or echo) is constructed that encodes nearly all the surface characteristics of the stimulus (for example, color, shape, location, pitch, and loudness). The information is short lived, lasting less than a second. Much evidence suggests that extraction of information from this representation takes place in two stages, a feature analysis stage and an object recognition stage. It is during the latter stage that attention (controlled processing) and previous knowledge come into play. See Memory, Perception

Conceptual knowledge is needed to classify objects and events in the world. Some aspects of conceptual knowledge are innate or emerge very early in development, while others are acquired through learning and inference.

A primary cognitive function of all social species is communication, which can be accomplished by a combination of vocal, gestural, and even hormonal signals. Of all species on Earth, only humans have developed a communication system based on abstract signs. This evolutionary development is closely tied to the greater reasoning capacity of humans as well. All reasoning can be broadly described as pattern recognition and search. Conceptual knowledge base are searched for relevant information in order to draw a conclusion, solve a problem, or guide behavior. Thinking often takes the form of a chain of associations among concepts in long-term memory, with one thought retrieving others to which it is related. The most common reasoning strategies include direct retrieval, imaging, means-ends analysis, analogy, classification, deduction, and formal procedures.

Reasoning by direct retrieval involves retrieving a known fact from memory to solve a problem. Reasoning imagistically involves constructing or retrieving images from conceptual memory and examining or manipulating them to solve a problem. For example, individuals reason imagistically when they determine how many windows there are in their living rooms by retrieving an image of the room and counting the windows in the image.

Means-ends analysis is typically employed when solving problems in unfamiliar domains. When a solution is not immediately apparent, reasoners typically compare the goal to the current situation and select means with which to reduce the differences between the two situations.

The restructuring of a problem representation that allows an available means to be used in a novel way or a seemingly unrelated bit of knowledge to be accessed to solve the probem is called insight.

Reasoning by analogy is used when a current situation allows an individual to recall another, similar situation that has a known solution or other information relevant to the task at hand. It is a technique that is powerful but error prone.

Reasoning by classification involves making inferences about an object or event based on its category membership.

Deductive reasoning involves drawing a conclusion based on its logical relation to one or more premises. A second common use for deduction is testing hypotheses.

Formal procedures for reasoning and for solving problems include logic, mathematics, probability theory and statistics, and scientific investigation. Understanding of the behavior and properties of physical, biological, and cognitive systems has been greatly enhanced through the use of these techniques. See Psycholinguistics

By using noninvasive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET scan), magnetic resonance imaging, electrical skin conductance, invasive surgical and chemical investigations of animal brains, and data from clinically observed syndromes associated with brain injury, cognitive neuroscientists have pieced together information concerning the role that specific brain regions play in the processing of emotional and cognitive events. High-level visual processing, such as object recognition, takes place in the occipital lobes of the cortex, although recognition of certain highly complex visual stimuli, such as faces, is handled by the right cerebral hemisphere. Auditory stimuli in general are processed by the temporal lobes of the cortex, and written and spoken word recognition and syntactical components of language processing are handled by certain regions of the left hemisphere of the cerebral cortex, notably Broca's and Wernicke's areas; while emotional, idiomatic, and prosodic aspects of language are handled by corresponding regions in the right hemisphere. Higher cognition, such as reasoning and problem solving, involves the frontal lobes of the cortex. Memory and the processing of emotional stimuli are handled by the combined effort of the cortex (notably the anterior and frontal regions) and subcortical structures (notably the limbic system).

One particular subcortical structure—the hippocampus—plays a major role in the formation of new explicit memories. It is believed that an intact hippocampus is needed to temporarily bind together distributed sites of activation in the cortex that together make up a whole, explicit memory for an event. See Brain

Theories of cognition are often tested by building computer models that embody the theories and then comparing the model's performance with human performance on selected tasks. These models tend to be of two types. Rule-based models consist of a long-term memory containing rules which specify actions to take in the presence of particular input patterns, a short-term memory that encodes input patterns and temporarily stores data structures constructed by the rules, and a control structure that guides the process and resolves conflicts when more than one rule applies to the current input. Neural network models simulate cognition as a strengthening and weakening of associations among cognitive events. They consist of a network of interconnected nodes, a mathematical formula for modifying the connections, and a mathematical formula for propagating activation through the network. See Intelligence

cognition

the thinking process. Mental life can be considered as comprising both thinking and feeling elements: the cognitive and the emotional aspects of experience. Cognition is concerned with perception, memory, language, and problem solving. See also COGNITIVE SOCIOLOGY and COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY.

cognition

[käg′nish·ən]
(psychology)
The act or process of knowing, including comprehension, judgment, memory, perception, and reasoning.
References in periodicals archive ?
In looking at the seven cognitive processes as an alternative framework for designing cognitive computing systems, your mileage will vary.
With respect to the cognitive process dimension, I have reorganized the order of cognitive processes of Anderson and Krathwohl's (2001) revised Bloom's et al.'s (1956) taxonomy and added to them based on the review of literature on cognitive research and studies as I mentioned above.
The final analysis scheme counted 15 different codes, of which 13 corresponded to the five core cognitive processes and 2 were used to map general (meta)cognitive behavior (e.g., recapitulating the problem statement, checking progress) and off-task behavior (e.g., talking about classroom practices, social comments).
Studies on cognitive processes in writing can vary based on researchers' point of view.
Together, the eye gaze data and retrospective recall quantified and contextualized the forecaster's cognitive processes, providing a full picture of what, how, and why he was looking at certain points on the screen.
It incorporated context and research base but failed to incorporate the cognitive processes and the writing process.
Again, the underlying cognitive processes of simulation-based learning are illustrated using examples from various disciplines.
In order to demonstrate how CTA can be used to analyse children's thinking competence in their task performances, the task analysis carried out in the study is presented and discussed using a number of case examples to illustrate how CTA techniques were used to analyse firstly the children's cognitive processes, and secondly their domain knowledge and thinking skills.
For such features have no bearing upon the doxastic justification of the subject's beliefs, which is to be assessed only by attending to the subject's own cognitive processes. In the next two chapters, Goldberg argues against this conception of the epistemic significance of testimony.
Gentner's structure-mapping model of analogy will be used in this research as the basis for the cognitive process model of information requirement analysis because of the following two reasons: First, the output of the structure-mapping model of analogy is a situation model of the problem context under investigation, which is the same as the output by the cognitive processes of text comprehension and information requirement analysis.
The analysis of learning objectives with the Taxonomy Table (TT) will reveal the type(s) of cognitive processes and Knowledge--the level of competence--expected by the instructor.

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