spot

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spot,

fish: see croakercroaker,
member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Spot

 

any one of several diseases of agricultural plants characterized by formation of blotches of dead cells on leaves, stems, fruits, and other plant parts; a specific type of necrosis. Spots are caused by inadequate soil nutrition; air pollution; burns; and pathogenic fungi (most often, imperfect hyphomycetic fungi of the genera Ramularia, Cercospora, and Macrosporium and pycnidial fungi of the genera Septoria, Ascochyta, and Phoma; less commonly such perfect fungi as ascomycetes of the genus Pseudopeziza), bacteria (genera Pseudomonas and X anthomonas), and viruses.

The outward appearance of the spots is determined by the relationship between and the specific features of the parasite and the plant host. The causative agents, which usually spread throughout the tissues, encounter opposition from the plant host in the form of mechanical and chemical barriers. A mechanical barrier is caused by the formation of a cork layer on the boundary between healthy and diseased tissue; the cork localizes the focus of infection. For example, in drupaceous crops infected with the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum or the bacterium Xanthomonas pruni, the affected tissue, after the formation of the cork layer, falls out together with the pathogen. Chemical barriers form owing to the accumulation in the affected cells and the cells adjacent to them of phenolic substances that are toxic to the parasite (specifically anthocyanins and products of their oxidation). If intrusion of the parasite is accompanied by a severe protective reaction of the plant, a small necrotic spot is formed and development of the causative agent is curtailed. When, however, the protective action is insufficient to localize the infection, the spots slowly enlarge (for example, macrosporiosis of potatoes, tomatoes, cotton; phomosis of sugar beet). Sometimes check zones in the form of concentric rings are readily observable on the spots.

When the causative agents are pathogenic fungi, there arise variously shaped and colored dry spots, upon whose surface one may observe the spore carriers of the fungus. Bacterial spots are characterized by the formation of tiny blotches surrounded by chlorotic aureoles; sometimes droplets of resin emerge on the spots (for example, gummosis of cotton). Spots produced by viruses are localized along the veins or form characteristic rings and designs. Their coloration may be red (with accumulation of anthocyanins), dark brown, gray, black (with accumulation of melanins), or white (with decolorization of pigments).

The resulting atrophy of parts of leaves, fruits, and stems decreases the photosynthetic surface of the plant and the plant’s productivity. With widespread infection, the spots merge. This may result in the mass falling of leaves and fruits and the drying of stems, significantly decreasing the yield of agricultural crops. In some cases, even a minor infection may bring great harm. For example, a single infection of an alfalfa petiole with the pathogenic ascomycete Pseudopeziza medicaginis close to the place where the leaf blade is attached leads to leaf fall. For a discussion of control measures against spots of agricultural plants seeBACTERIAL DISEASES OF PLANTS, VIRAL PLANT DISEASES, and FUNGAL DISEASES OF PLANTS.

REFERENCE

Gorlenko, M. V. Sel’skokhoziaistvennaia fitopatologiia. Moscow, 1968.

IU. T. D’IAKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

spot

[spät]
(electronics)
In a cathode-ray tube, the area instantaneously affected by the impact of an electron beam.
(ordnance)
To determine, by observation, deviations of ordnance from the target for the purpose of supplying necessary information for adjustment of fire.
To place ordnance in a proper location.
To locate or espy something, as an aircraft or troop concentration.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

spotting

A paint-film defect characterized by small circular or irregular areas having color or gloss different from that of the surrounding background.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Spot

dog accompanying Sally, Dick, and Jane in primers. [Am. Cult.: Misc.]
See: Dogs
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

spot

1. a geographical area that is restricted in extent
2. a blemish of the skin, esp a pimple or one occurring through some disease
3. a position or length of time in a show assigned to a specific performer
4. short for spotlight
5. in billiards
a. the white ball that is distinguished from the plain by a mark or spot
b. the player using this ball
6. Billiards snooker one of several small black dots on a table that mark where a ball is to be placed
7. Commerce
a. denoting or relating to goods, currencies, or securities available for immediate delivery and payment
b. involving immediate cash payment
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

SPOT

(Smart Personal Objects Technology) See Microsoft Smart Watch.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
"Perhaps the most exciting of these is that the Cold Spot was caused by a collision between our universe and another bubble universe.
McKee says people were worried Cold Spot would go out of business when PetCo arrived shortly afterward, but Cold Spot had become a destination not just for mushers but for pet owners as well.
They mapped relatively nearby galaxies lying within the Cold Spot's boundaries on the sky and found that the density of galaxies existing 11.1 billion years after the Big Bang decreased near the center of the Cold Spot.
Therefore, the voltage is a function of both the current and the cold spot temperature, which can be expressed by the phenomenological formula through fitting the measured data in Figs.
Rudnick was working on a completely different project when he first heard about the supercold cold spot. He was feeling frustrated with his research, and his mind kept straying to the new mystery.
This fine-textured mold is often a result of moisture condensation on cold spots on exterior walls and ceilings.
They become hotter faster than other food ingredients around them -- one reason why microwaved foods have hot and cold spots.
"The Great Cold Spot is much more volatile than the slowly changing Great Red Spot, changing dramatically in shape and size over only a few days and weeks, but it has re-appeared for as long as we have data to search for it, for over 15 years.
If produced in the early Universe, textures would interact with light from the CMB to leave a set of characteristic hot and cold spots. If detected, such signatures would yield invaluable insight into the types of phase transitions that occurred when the Universe was a fraction of a second old, with drastic implications for particle physics.
Basically the current model of how space works is thrown out by this Cold Spot and hole but it may mean that the universe is expanding differently to how experts think.
Another is the "cold spot", a particularly large void in the CMB, which some have proposed is evidence of another universe nestling next to our own.
For experienced thermographers the camera also has auto temperature ranging, eight colour pallets, selectable emissivity, reflected temperature compensation, hot and cold spot finding, temperature area measurement, automatic and user selectable level and span, isotherm display, temperature gradients, and user selectable temperature units and image browser.