Ischemia

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ischemia

[i′skē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
Localized tissue anemia as a result of obstruction of the blood supply or to vasoconstriction.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Ischemia

 

a local deficiency of blood; insufficient blood in an organ or tissue because of the narrowing or complete occlusion of the lumen of an afferent artery.

Transitory ischemia (like hyperemia) may result from physiological regulation of the blood supply, such as in reflex spasm of an artery caused by a mental factor (fright); the influence of pain, cold, chemical substances (epinephrine, ergotin), and biological stimuli (bacteria, toxins); the obstruction of an artery by a thrombus or embolus; constriction of the lumen of a blood vessel in connection with an atherosclerotic or inflammatory process in the wall; or compression of an artery by a tumor, scar, or foreign body. The aftereffects of ischemia depend on the degree of disruption of the blood flow, the rate of development and duration of the ischemia, the sensitivity of the tissue to oxygen deficiency, and the general condition of the body. Ischemia may end in complete restoration of the structure and function of the affected organ or tissue, but it also may lead to necrosis (infarct). The central nervous system and heart muscle are particularly sensitive to ischemia.

N. R. PALEEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
To determine if duration of tissue cold ischemia affected IHC detection of PTEN protein, we evaluated benign prostate tissue from radical prostatectomy cases (n = 10) procured at JHU and NYU by TMA.
Initial evidence regarding the role of ceramide showed that it was elevated in rat liver after cold ischemia and warm reperfusion during transplantation [14].
performed a randomized trial of the vasodilator fenoldopam in 17 deceased-donor kidney transplant patients with cold ischemia time >12 hours [42].
No statistical difference was observed between the two groups in terms of cold ischemia time and the global HLA mismatch (3.2 [+ or -]1.2 in the retransplant group versus 3.5 [+ or -] 1.2 in the control group).
Preanalytical variables that may affect staining include tissue collection (cold ischemia time); tissue fixation; tissue processing and sectioning.
New research shows that broader sharing of deceased donor livers will not significantly increase cold ischemia time (CIT)-the time the liver is in a cooled state outside the donor suggesting that this is not a barrier to broader sharing of organs.
Organ preservation solutions play an important role in the prevention of DGF, especially in organs from expanded criteria donors or exposed to prolonged cold ischemia. [4].
Three successful digital replantations in a patient after 84, 86, and 94 hours of cold ischemia time.
The warm and cold ischemia time were short in the present study as a single surgeon performed donor nephrectomy and graft anastomoses.
"Because each additional minute of warm ischemia invites the risk for chronic kidney problems, if longer ischemic times are unavoidable, techniques such as ice slush (cold ischemia) should be considered," Thompson added.
However, the best model for patients without hepatitis C included donor age, cold ischemia time, gender, race/ethnicity, recipient age, BMI, MELD score, status at time of transplantation, diabetes mellitus, cause of liver disease, and serum albumin.
A multivariate analysis combining both groups of patients showed that significant risk factors for death were preoperative hospitalization, longer cold ischemia times of the donor liver, a liver disease etiology of hepatitis C virus infection, and alcohol consumption.