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Hives or nettle rash; a skin condition characterized by the appearance of intensely itching wheals or welts with elevated, usually white centers and a surrounding area of erythema. Also known as hives.



nettle rash, an allergic reaction characterized by the sudden and rapid appearance on the skin (sometimes also on the laryngeal mucosa) of intensely itching wheals.

Urticaria is often caused by the sting of the nettle and certain other plants. Insect bites, temperature, and chemical agents are also among its causes. Other factors include parasitic worms, chronic constipation, liver and kidney diseases, and allergic sensitivity to some foods (for example, strawberries, citrus fruits, eggs, mushrooms, preserves, certain fish, pork, and chocolate). Urticaria is sometimes caused by hypersensitivity to drugs (especially to those of chemical origin). The rash associated with the condition is a manifestation of the inflammatory reaction and edema of the skin that result from a sudden increase in the permeability of the capillaries in the area. This results from the liberation of histamine from the mast cells of the skin by allergic alteration. Urticaria usually disappears without a trace within a few hours, although it sometimes recurs. It is treated by purgation (by enemas, laxatives), special diet (mostly milk and vegetables, with limited salt intake), and desensitizing and anti-histaminic agents.


Pavlov, S. T. Kozhnye i venericheskie bolezni, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1969.


References in periodicals archive ?
An ice cube is placed on the patient's arm and if hives result, it's cold urticaria.
It's a hard thing for a mother to see, she said, especially when the cold urticaria caused a frightening reaction during a swim in a hotel pool with his grandmother.
Those diagnosed with cold urticaria often stop suffering symptoms after five or six years, Dr.
Classification of urticaria Type Subtype Spontaneous urticaria Acute and chronic spontaneous urticaria Physical urticaria Cold urticaria Delayed pressure urticaria Hot urticaria Solar urticaria Dermographism Vibration urticaria Other Aquagenic urticaria Cholinergic urticaria Contact urticaria Exercise induced anaphylaxisurticaria Table 2.
On the basis of his history, a diagnosis of cold urticaria was suspected and an ice cube test was performed which was positive (Figure 2).
Cold urticaria is a type of physical urticaria where exposure to cold leads to the formation of wheals.
Cold urticaria is broadly classified into primary (96 Percent) and secondary (4 Percent).
Cold winds and rain are stimuli for development of cold urticaria. Occasionally cold urticaria may be associated with systemic symptoms like flushing, palpitations etc.
The ice cube test or the cold contact test is the most common and standard test done for evaluation of cold urticarial.3 This is positive only in generalized and localized cold contact variants and it is negative in systemic cold urticaria and secondary cold urticarias.1 In this test there is appearance of wheal on rewarming of the skin which has been exposed earlier to an ice cube for five minutes.2 In order to detect the threshold cold temperature, various devices like Temp test(r) are present, but not easily available.3
The pathogenesis of primary cold urticaria is exactly not known but it has been proposed that there is production of IgE antibodies following an unknown antigenic stimulation.
Patients with cold urticaria present with wheals only in situations where there is exposure to cold.