Collective Security

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Collective Security


cooperation among states to maintain international peace, prevent and eliminate the threat to peace, and, when necessary, suppress acts of aggression. A collective security agreement should include a system of measures for delivering a collective rebuff to the aggressor and collective aid, including military, to the victim of aggression under the principle that an attack against one of the members of the collective security agreement is regarded as an attack on all.

A collective security system may be implemented within the framework of a general international organization (for example, the United Nations, whose charter assigns the exclusive right of applying sanctions against an aggressor to the Security Council, which has the main responsibility for maintaining peace) or within the framework of regional organizations and agreements. The carrying out of disarmament measures would help to strengthen the collective security system.

The USSR views the creation of collective security as one of the most important conditions for maintaining international peace. In 1933, with the growing threat from Nazi Germany, the USSR pushed actively for an “Eastern pact” to provide collective security in Europe. Soviet diplomacy prior to World War II also worked to create a strong security system that would be as broad as possible. However, its efforts were not successful because of the policy of complicity with the aggressor that in essence was carried out by the Western powers.

During the war, Soviet diplomacy worked constantly, in examining the problems of a postwar arrangement, to turn collective security into one of the most important factors for providing worldwide peace. Its efforts in this direction were confirmed after the war in certain provisions of the UN Charter and in agreements concluded by the USSR with other countries. The Soviet Union made a number of proposals aimed at creating a collective security system in Europe (at the Big Four Foreign Ministers Meeting in Berlin in 1954, the Moscow Conference of European Nations for Maintenance of Peace and Security in Europe in November-December 1954, the Big Four Geneva Summit Conference in 1955, and others). The refusal of the imperialist powers to accept proposals on collective security and their policy after World War II of forging aggressive military and political blocs (such as NATO, SEATO, and CENTO) led the European socialist nations to conclude the Warsaw Pact of 1955 for defensive purposes. Subsequently, the member nations of this pact repeatedly proposed a nonaggression pact between the NATO member states and the Warsaw Pact states and worked for the elimination of all exclusive military groupings and blocs.

In contributing to international détente, the Soviet Union and the other socialist countries are focusing their efforts on creating collective security systems in Europe and Asia that would encompass the widest possible number of members. The European socialist countries were the initiators of convening the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, basing this call on the fact that this conference would set the path to solving a number of urgent problems, including the creation of an all-European collective security system.


References in periodicals archive ?
It is Germany that brought collective security in its handling of the Central European powers such as Poland, Slovakia and other sovereign states relieved of their former Soviet hegemony.
Proposals calling for collective security in the Gulf fall far short of the requirements for a real escape from the balance-of-power politics articulated by theorists.
Ewing says her goal in writing Collective Security Within Reach was to "pull together various isolated strands of thinking by individuals and groups and to consider them within the broad framework of a vision of collective security in the Baha'i writings" and, in doing so, show how they all "fit together like pieces of a jigsaw puzzle to create a broad-based road map to peace.
The Security Council needs to be restructured to reflect the contemporary realities, if it wishes to react effectively to the re-emerging collective security challenges," added Patil.
The members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization are Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
In the article, published by the flagship journal of the globalist Council on Foreign Relations, Annan described his plans to convene a September summit of world leaders "to strengthen our collective security, lay[?
The social gospelers were liberal internationalists at heart, always preaching cooperation, collective security, and the common good.
They could face charges of threatening collective security, punishable by up to 15 years in prison and fines of up to USD5,000.
Develop collective security, post-September 11, with a reformed UN and no more ``neo-colonialUS adventures''.
During the first 10 years, the central task for Japan would be to involve itself in the construction of an Asian collective security framework that would include some US participation.
But institutions like the United Nations are still invaluable--not for collective security, which they've failed at miserably--but for humanitarian aid and support, as well as infrastructure building, involving schools, hospitals, and clinics, which they're generally good at (as the Bush administration seems, partially and belatedly, to have conceded).
Among the common vulnerabilities identified during the world's collective security reassessment after 9-U are air ducts and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

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