News organisations face a collective action problem
. It is in each of their interests to resist harmful or exploitative policies imposed by platform monopolists.
These two methods solved--or at least sufficiently mitigated--the collective action problem
One way to answer this question would be approach it as a kind of collective action problem
. Put simply, a group of individuals seeking to access a limited resource are confronted with several potential problems.
The collective action problem
. Library collaboration is both a central value of librarianship and delivers enormous value for libraries.
The reviewer finds Callen's analysis persuasive as a case study and illuminating as an example of the general proposition that solving a "foundational" collective action problem
is the necessary first step towards creating the democratic institutions required for an effective federal state.
Bankruptcy solves a creditors' collective action problem
Where states act as rational actors in their interactions with other states, there are two main problems: the rational decisions make both parties worse off, and the costs of interacting are high due to the collective action problem
recognized to constitute a collective action problem
, pursuant to which
Each perspective corruption as a principal-agent problem, corruption as a collective action problem
, and corruption as problem-solving adds to understanding of the challenges that anti-corruption efforts face.
Many ethicists see it as a "collective action problem
," a public-health concern that must be addressed in an organised, holistic manner.
Acknowledging that many would advocate a normative-ethical stance, a persuasive argument is offered for the adoption of a virtue focused approach, the most compelling of which is the positioning of climate change as a collective action problem
in which the aggregated actions of individual actions have and will continue to become extremely damaging to our planet.
Part II presents the advantages and the drawbacks of the common ex ante version of the rule and raises the collective action problem
. Part III introduces an alternative, innovative ex post version of the rule, presents the potential advantages and disadvantages of this version, and raises the more serious collective action problem
that manifests itself in this version.