collective bargaining

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collective bargaining,

in labor relations, procedure whereby an employer or employers agree to discuss the conditions of work by bargaining with representatives of the employees, usually a labor union. Its purpose may be either a discussion of the terms and conditions of employment (wages, work hours, job safety, or job security) or a consideration of the collective relations between both sides (the right to organize workers, recognition of a union, or a guarantee of no reprisals against the workers if a strike has occurred). The merits of collective bargaining have been argued by both opponents and proponents of the process; the former maintain that it deprives the worker of his individual liberty to dispose of his service, while the latter point out that without the union's protection the worker is subject to the dictation of the employer. As an essential process in labor relations, collective bargaining was first developed in Great Britain in the 19th cent. It has since become an accepted practice in most Western countries with a high level of industrialization. The National Labor Relations Act of 1935, known as the Wagner Act, established the right to collective bargaining in the United States.

Bibliography

See G. Farmer, Collective Bargaining in Transition (2 vol., 1967); J. S. Fishkin, The Limits of Obligation (1983); E. E. Herman et al., Collective Bargaining and Labor Relations (2d ed. 1987); J. P. Windmuller et al., Collective Bargaining in Industrialized Market Economies (1987).

collective bargaining

the negotiations about terms and conditions of employment which take place between an employer, or an employers association, and one or more TRADE UNIONS. Sociological interest in collective bargaining has involved, for example, consideration of the implications it has for the structure, aims and accomplishments of trade unions, the relations between managers and employees, and the dynamics of capitalist society; an underlying theme being the extent to which it is associated with the institutionalization of conflict and, relatedly, the separation of economic and political issues (see POSTCAPITALISM, INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS).

collective bargaining

[kə′lek·tiv ′bär·gən·iŋ]
(industrial engineering)
The negotiation for mutual agreement in the settlement of a labor contract between an employer or his representatives and a labor union or its representatives.
References in periodicals archive ?
The government's clear preference for individual over collective contracts is evident in the text of the law in several ways.
Moreover, under the Labor Contract Law collective contracts are not required; the law treats the individual contract as the primary reference point for adjudicating disputes (Article 51).
31, 2008) (P.R.C.) provides details for the process of negotiating and signing collective contracts, which include the selection of negotiating representatives, scope of negotiable subjects supervision by the local labor administration, procedures for collective negotiation, and duties of proper conduct for collective negotiations such as fair representation and fair treatment of employees.
Of the thirteen thousand labor disputes arbitrated in Shanghai in 2001, not a single dispute concerned a collective contract; one trade union official stated "we won't re-sign collective contracts again in three years unless we are forced to, because this thing has no meaning." Id.
However, as collective contracts will continue to be the norm and all insurers will be legally bound by them, their co-existence with selective contracts will involve challenges.
(11) For other programmes, such as special outpatient care and GP-centred models, take-up has been limited and those that were developed were often financed as add-ons to the collective contracts. In the case of highly specialised ambulatory care in hospitals the incomplete risk structure adjustment has proved to be an additional problem hampering take-up, as insurers offering this kind of care for patients with catastrophic chronic diseases would have risked attracting new members requiring highly costly treatments without receiving financial re-compensation.
Can higher labor standards negotiated into collective contracts provide a mechanism inside the enterprise by which employees' labor rights could be better enforced?
As to the union's advocacy role on behalf of the employees, the ACFTU is to provide guidance and assistance to workers on obtaining individual labor and collective contracts and to advance workers' interests against the employers' regarding compliance with a variety of health, safety, and labor laws.
The collective contracts specifically outline the minimum cost of living increases paid every six months.
Overtime is also negotiated in all the collective contracts. The usual maximum hours allowed per week is twelve hours.
The most important activities of the emerging national tripartism have included the elaboration of the Law on the Settlement of Collective Labor Disputes, which was adopted by the Grand National Assembly on March 6, 1990; the signing by the government, CITUB, and NUEM of a General Agreement on urgent social and economic problems (March 15, 1990); and the adoption by the social partners of General Guidelines for the Conclusion of Collective Contracts and Agreements During 1990 (April 5, 1990).

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