colonialism

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Related to Colonial empire: decolonization, British colonial empire

colonialism

the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas

colonialism

the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.

Colonialism

 

the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
From 1474 until 1975, Portugal maintained one of the largest colonial empires in Africa.
In this sense, it can be considered to have been a symbol of the weakness of the Spanish colonial empire. However, tobacco exports from the island always maintained themselves as an important activity, contrary to, for instance, the situation in Louisiana where both the French and the Spanish failed to foment a viable tobacco sector.
His biographers contribute his despair in large part to the British blockades that had "cut off the umbilical cord between the motherland and the colony." (8) Also in the Netherlands the colonial communication crisis was considered to be a problem, as it threatened the very existence of the colonial empire in Southeast Asia.
It has long been accepted that the end of France's colonial empire was an especially bloody affair that witnessed the two most violent wars of decolonization in Indochina and Algeria.
In the book under review Conrad has discussed the evolution of the German colonial empire from the days when it acquired the Overseas Territories.
Greek Cypriots have voting rights in the UK only because Cyprus was part of the colonial empire, which is now the Commonwealth, but Cypriots do not have the same voting rights in Holland or Germany or Belgium etc.
The British government was primarily focused on maintaining and even increasing its colonial empire. Global security did not interest it beyond a possible impact on its empire.
Despite its strengths, Raising Germans in the Age of Empire concentrates more on adults who manipulated colonial images than on the youth who enthusiastically embraced them and the book hinges too much of its argument on imprecise and cliched understandings of "modernity." Nevertheless scholars will welcome Bowersox's work for its contributions to the history of youth and mass culture and how Gentians responded to the demands of a rising colonial empire and the early twentieth-century industrialized world.
Moreover, since the end of the Italian colonial empire coincided with a lost world war and a general upheaval of postfascism, no attention nor energy were devoted to keeping up an Italian cultural presence in former colonies.
She covers the roots of racial discrimination, the place of the colonies and their populations in the Portuguese colonial empire, and representations of the colonies and the overseas Portuguese in the great exhibitions.
The US emerged as the preeminent trading power following World War II as it spearheaded the creation of the global trade and financial architecture and the UK began dismantling its colonial empire. China began focusing on trade and foreign investment to boost its economy after decades of isolation under Chairman Mao Zedong.
Their presence in France, coupled with the intense desire to integrate into mainstream society, serve as painful reminders of the trauma of the Algerian War and the disintegration of the French colonial empire.

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