colonialism

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Related to Colonial expansion: Colonial powers, European colonialism

colonialism

the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas

colonialism

the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.

Colonialism

 

the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
Furthermore, the different chronologies of individual nations' colonial expansions, together with the endorsement of the theatre for evangelizing purposes by Catholics in contrast to its condemnation by Protestants, account for the apparent imbalances in the contents of individual chapters.
Another important contribution is that this book brings a different perspective to the history of colonial expansion and the 'making' of British Malaya between the 1870s and 1914, which has hitherto focused on the British administrators, the 'Malay' Sultan and his court, and the role of Chinese capital and labour in the opening up and modernization of these states.
The French preferred their "colonial conscripts" instead of their "citizen soldiers" to die for the advancement of colonial expansion.
Colonial expansion by the European powers provided the stimulus for others to seek armaments--either to join in expansion, as in the case of Japan, or to stave off the imperialist threat, as in the case of Ethiopia.
In Christian Missions and the Enlightenment a collection published in the same series in 2001, and also edited by Brian Stanley, the essays focused on the role that Christian missionaries played in Western colonial expansion.
Fujita-Rony situates the formation of Philippine Seattle within the development of the American West and US colonial expansion and capitalist penetration in Asia and the Pacific.
The research sheds light on the period ranging from industrial and colonial expansion, through the two great wars and the consequent national and global restructuring, to the Centennial Conference of the YMCA in 1955 in Paris.
In Australia we do not have the wars of colonial expansion that were fought on other continents, most notably Africa and America and John Connor is the first to admit this.
It is a difficult place to be, but I know this: God is good, and he created the indigenous peoples of the Americas and spoke to them thousands of years before the colonial expansion of Christianity through European church structures.
Two such changes were of particular importance for sixteenth-century literature: on the one hand, European colonial expansion across large distances into the New World, and, on the other hand, the integration of local communities into centrally administered monarchical states.
Though the common assumption is that the economy before British hegemony was overwhelmingly agricultural and that industrialism came with colonial expansion, it is argued here that the "pre-colonial economy that had supported some occupational diversity was being replaced (in the colonial era) by one much more purely agricultural in orientation" (61).
The colonial expansion of the West in Latin America, Africa and Asia was from the outset a global process that was ethnocentric, authoritarian, patriarchal and destructive of nature.

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