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Related to Colonial expansion: Colonial powers, European colonialism


the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas


the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.



the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
Three essays together examine imperial ideology, the domestic pressures behind colonial expansion, and the practice of colonial domination abroad.
explores King Philip's War, between Europeans and Native Americans from 1675-1676, and describes how colonial expansion and encroachments on Wampanoag Indian sovereignty caused the war and how the leader Metacom (Philip) sought to enlist the aid of other tribes against the colonists in Plymouth.
AaAa Their first demand prompted a shameless American retreat, whereby the Obama administration dropped its insistence on a total freeze in Israeli colonial expansion in the West Bank, a position the Americans originally shared with the Palestinians who, in turn, remain firmly committed to stopping Israel's continued usurpation of Occupied East Jerusalem.
The remarkable speed and success of British colonial expansion in the face of Mughal decline concealed a more troubling reality that was characterized by "alarming financial instability and the complex moral problems raised by the admixture of trade with government" (pp.
A Christianity that reached the Third World by the path of European colonial expansion can only regain its authenticity by the path of inculturation.
In his most recent piece, Dom Sao Sebastiao, 1996, Saint Sebastian confronts Dom Sebastiao, a Portuguese king obsessed with colonial expansion in Africa, who was defeated and killed in the battle of Alcazarquivir in 1578.
Recent efforts, however, enlarge and enrich the scope of interpretation by situating Spenser's career and writings within the broader cultural and political history of English colonial expansion within the British Isles.
Scholars of art history, literature, and religion examine the portrayal of religious conversion during a period of religious ferment fueled by the Protestant and Catholic Reformation, Western European colonial enterprises in the Americas, and Ottoman colonial expansion.
The Israelis are floating a tradeoff in which they would extend the moratorium on colonial expansion in exchange for release by the U.
Based on the analysis of the importance of Marian devotion in fifteenth-century Portugal, Kiddy argues that the Portuguese encouraged the brotherhoods as part of their colonial expansion in Africa, and later in Brazil, because these institutions were part of their own religious traditions.
Not all the caffeine drinks encountered in the course of European colonial expansion came to be accepted for consumption in Europe.
Pacific Islanders in this locale were exploited for their labour and skills, as they were in other industries such as the fisheries and sugar, therefore contributing to the process of European colonial expansion and economic development.

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