have shown that a mass gap and color confinement appears when one extends the dAFF procedure to relativistic, causal, Poincare invariant, light-front Hamiltonian theory for QCD.
The combination of light-front dynamics, its holographic mapping to [AdS.sub.5] space, and the dAFF procedure provides new insight into the physics underlying color confinement, the nonperturbative QCD coupling, and the QCD mass scale.
The Light-Front Schrodinger Equation incorporates color confinement and other essential spectroscopic and dynamical features of hadron physics, including a massless pion for zero quark mass and linear Regge trajectories with the same slope in the radial quantum number n and internal orbital angular momentum L.
This is a signal that pQCD is inconsistent without color confinement. The sum of such diagrams could sum to the confinement potential [[kappa].sup.4][[zeta].sup.2] dictated by the dAFF principle that the action remains conformally invariant despite the appearance of the mass scale [kappa] in the Hamiltonian.
The new insights into color confinement given by AdS/QCD suggest that one could compute "hadronization at the amplitude level"  using the confinement interaction and the LFWFs predicted by AdS/QCD and Light-Front Holography.
Dosch, "The light-front schrodinger equation and determination of the perturbative QCD scale from color confinement," Few-Body Systems, vol.
This rule was called the quark confinement or color confinement.
However, the QCD is unable to elucidate the physical phenomena of color confinement by itself.
Nevertheless, the Standard Model is unable to unpuzzle the color confinement, color charge, dark matter, and so forth.
(b) Color Confinement. The QCD and other existing theories are incapable of revealing the essence of color degrees of freedom.
And it inspired the subsequent scholars to apply the quaternions, octonions, and sedenions to investigate the gravitational field, electromagnetic field, nuclear field, Dirac wave equation, Yang-Mills equation, electroweak field, color confinement, dark matter field, and so forth.
The 37 contributions to the June 2015 workshop demonstrate that GribovAEs ideas and approaches to several particle physics problems, such as the theoretical construction of a consistent picture of high energy hadron interactions, quantum anomalies, and color confinement
, are being actively used and developed in the 21st century.