Certainly, these were not just command economies
. They mixed state initiatives and private investments.
A particularly interesting example of this is the book's discussion of the role religion could play in the emergence of former command economies
into free market economies.
As the European Union expands its borders in a quest for prosperity and power, hundreds of thousands of people may find themselves not invited to the party, their situation having been a result of decades of Communist-ruled state control and command economies
. During the industrial age, output, rather than outcome, was a key measure of success.
And Western businesses and financial institutions entered the scene, too, ensnaring command economies
in Western market pricing and credit practices.
These two chapters provide a good macro-level background on how the command economies
of central and eastern Europe worked in the past, what changes were supposed to take place after 1989, and what changes have actually taken place in the first nine years of transition.
The book explores the whys and hows of deconstructing economics, making the case for economic literacy from a feminist perspective, introducing basic concepts, defining terms and the world's economic systems as they affect women and children: market, capitalist, socialist and command economies
Governments in the Middle East and North Africa, busily adapting to the ripple effects of the Gulf crisis of 1990, did not have time to act on the realisation that the day of highly centralised "command economies
" were over.
Second, the demise of Communism in central and eastern Europe, and later on in Russia and the other countries of the former Soviet Union, brought about the end of the system of centrally planned or command economies
nearly everywhere, even in most countries which remained under a Communist regime.
Overall, argue the editors, taxation is attracting more attention because of decentralization in many nations, the collapse of command economies
, the globalization of markets, and the rapid increase in electronic commerce.
It is the problems of command economies
that surface in the public sector.
First, the Asian economies were generally command economies
. There was a very strong element of governments running the economy.
Randall Stone provides a theoretically sophisticated and empirically rich study of the constraints on Soviet-bloc trading relations imposed by the structure of command economies
. This book speaks not only to international relations specialists concerned with rigorous analysis of political economy and two-level bargaining processes but also to area specialists seeking a description of Eastern bloc trade negotiations prior to 1991.