the visual study of the enemy and the terrain conducted personally by the commander and staff officers in order to obtain necessary information for adopting a plan or refining it.
Commander’s reconnaissance is usually carried out along the axes of forthcoming troop actions. The commanders of subordinate, attached, and support units of all sizes and the commanders and officers in charge of branches, special forces, and services also take part in commander’s reconnaissance. This form of reconnaissance is also conducted to study regions or lines for the possible location and deployment of forces and routes of movement, as well as to correct and supplement topographical maps. Special parties sent out to reconnoiter the ground may include officers from the headquarters and from the directorates of the branches, special troops, and services. To collect such information within friendly territory, helicopters, airplanes, high-speed command vehicles, and radar instruments are used.