Polyphyly and covergent morphological evolution in Commelinales
and Commelinidae: evidence from rbcL sequence data.
In order to consistently reconstruct the ancestral state of the order, we reconstructed the ancestral pollination syndrome for the sister group of the Zingiberales, the order Commelinales
. Bee pollination is common in this order (Buchmann, 1980; Faden, 1992; Hardy et al., 2009; Hopper & Burbidge, 1978; Husband & Barrett, 1992; Orth & Waddington, 1997) with bird pollination reported only for the genus Anigozanthos (family Haemodoraceae) (Hopper & Burbidge, 1978) and bat pollination not reported at all (Fleming et al., 2009).
Mayacaceae are nested within Commelinales that have more "specialized" xylem (see Fig.
15, Arecaceae (vessels throughout the plant, except in a few non-basal genera) is a sister family to Zingiberales (vessels in roots only except for Cannaceae, Marantaceae) plus Commelinales (vessels various).
ZHC Clade (Zingiberales, Commelinales and Hanguana)
orders Zingiberales and Commelinales, but its precise relationships
recent analyses of molecular data place it within Commelinales (e.g.,
In Table I we have loosely arranged them into five groupings, for convenience: 1) palms and possible relatives, 2) Poales and possible relatives, 3) Commelinales, 4) Philydrales, and 5) Zingiberales.
Among Commelinales, Commelinaceae are plasmodial, whereas Eriocaulaceae and Xyridaceae are probably secretory.
There are records of plasmodial tapeta in various Bromeliaceae, but this family has an uncertain position; it may be related to some Commelinales or Philydrales, such as Pontederiaceae (Rudall et al., in press), but the possible record here of an invasive tapetum supports a relationship with Zingiberales.
Parietal cells are lacking in some families of Commelinales
sensu Chase et al., 1995a (commelinoid families) (Table II), notably those of (a) the clade comprising Xyridaceae and Eriocaulaceae, and (b) the poalean clade (Linder & Kellogg, 1995), with the exception of Flagellariaceae, which is probably the sister taxon to other Poales (Kellogg & Linder, 1995).