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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Now, Mr President, there are people on your list who are clearly underserving of the Head of State Commendation. Mr President, you are setting a bad example by rewarding people based on their political leanings and loyalty.
"He shook my hand and congratulated me and said I was receiving a commendation which was a big surprise for me.
The DGP awarded a grant of Commendation Certificate Class I along with cash reward of Rs.
Speaking about the award, Mr, Guruvayurappan said, "We are honoured to receive this prestigious Commendation. We consider this Commendation as an acknowledgement of our efforts towards creating a world-class people-centric organization.
Acknowledging the achievements of about 30 pop culture associated artists, four different awards - the Medal, the President's Commendation, the Prime Minister's Commendation, and the Cultural Minister's Commendation - are given out at the ceremony.
Off-duty PCs Phil Sekowski and Tony Harrison also received a commendation for rescuing a woman after she jumped into the Tees off the Victoria Bridge in Thornaby.
In recognition of rendering meritorious services, DG CAA has awarded Commendation Certificates to Tanveer Khan CAA Porter with cash award of 02 basic pays.
Recommendation from patients has resulted in audiologist Gareth Morris being the only audiologist in Wales to receive the Certificate of Commendation, and one of only 12 presented in the UK among hearing professionals.
A CHARITY fundraiser has received a special commendation from Cancer Research UK in recognition of an outstanding contribution to the cause.
It is very much a team effort and I feel that this commendation belongs to my team as much as me."
Senior Aircraftwoman Charlotte Killeen, 25, from Wyken, has been presented with the Air Command Deputy Commander's Commendation awarded at RAF College Cranwell, near Sleaford in Lincolnshire.