Commendation

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Commendation

 

(1) In ancient Rome the right assumed by Julius Caesar and subsequently by Augustus and his successors to recommend to the Senate their own candidates for the remaining republican offices.

(2) In Western Europe in the early medieval period, an agreement sealing the act of giving oneself over to the protection of another, “stronger” person, who became patron of the former (the commended). The institution of commendation, which established relations of personal dependency of the commended with respect to the patron, formalized various underlying relationships. One type of commendation was the act of a vassal acknowledging his subordination to the power of the seignior, which was followed by an oath of fidelity and the granting of a benefice or fief to the vassal. A commendation of this type formalized the relationship of vassalage within the ruling class then taking shape.

A second form of commendation was that of impoverished free individuals to a large landowner. In this arrangement, a “weak” person gave himself over to the protection of a “stronger,” richer person and accepted not only personal dependence but frequently also material dependence: in many cases, the commended person was entrusted with land belonging to the patron. Such commendation was the legal formalization of a peasant’s dependence on a feudal landowner.

References in periodicals archive ?
Ambassador Kurai, while congratulating the commendation recipients, said they made invaluable contribution to raising the level of exchanges of culture or business between our two countries.
"He shook my hand and congratulated me and said I was receiving a commendation which was a big surprise for me.
Martyn Scott, Director of Audiology, left, presents Gareth Morris with his Certificate of Commendation
Flt Lt Lynn said: "The commendation is a huge honour, however without the professional and committed attitude of those I worked along side it would not have been possible."
National Grid plc, Warwick Winner of the Employer of Choice Award in the Corporate Category, Commendation Health & Wellbeing Award in the Large/Corporate Employer Category THIS utility company has its UK headquarters and largest site in Warwick, housing 1,800 employees out of the 10,000 total UK employee base.
--Approved the Texas State Technical College Vocational Nursing Education Program in Harlingen, Texas, granted Initial Program Approval Status, and issued a commendation and a recommendation.
Lt Cmdr Martin Lanni won the Air Force Cross while Flight Sergeant Euan Gibson got a Commander in Chief Fleet Commendation.
Last week, the chief issued a commendation to Detective Perry N.
A spokesman for Miss Phipps' family said: "The family are delighted to hear of Gary's commendation.
Pc Griffiths, pictured inset, has just been recognised as Community Police Officer of the Year during the latest round of commendations handed out by the Chief Constable of Gwent Police.
"The fact that he had been recommended for five commendations spoke volumes about his character."
"In Ricky's four years with us his bravery, determination and professionalism as a police officer saw him recognised with a total of five commendations, two from his divisional commander, two from me, and a judge's commendation.