commensalism

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commensalism

(kəmĕn`səlĭz'əm), relationship between members of two different species of organisms in which one individual is usually only slightly benefited, while the other member is not affected at all by the relationship. For example, some flatworms live attached to the gills of the horseshoe crab, obtaining bits of food from the crab's meals; the crab is apparently unaffected. In many cases commensalism cannot be distinguished from parasitism (see parasiteparasite,
plant or animal that at some stage of its existence obtains its nourishment from another living organism called the host. Parasites may or may not harm the host, but they never benefit it.
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). See also competitioncompetition,
in biology, relationship between members of the same or different species in which individuals are adversely affected by those having the same living requirements, such as food or space. Intraspecific competition, i.e.
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; symbiosissymbiosis
, the habitual living together of organisms of different species. The term is usually restricted to a dependent relationship that is beneficial to both participants (also called mutualism) but may be extended to include parasitism, in which the parasite depends upon
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.

Commensalism

 

inquilinism, the cohabitation of animals of different species, whereby one (the commensal) benefits permanently or temporarily from the other without causing the latter any damage.

A commensal may use the other organism for protection or transportation, or it may take advantage of the latter’s food supply. Characteristically commensal animals are divided into three groups, according to the character of the interrelationship:

(1) The commensal limits itself to the use of the food of the organism of the other species; for example, the annelid Nereis lives in the coils of the shell occupied by the hermit crab and eats the crab’s leftover food.

(2) The commensal attaches itself, temporarily or permanently, to the body of the other species, in this case called the host; for example, the remora attaches itself by the dorsal fin, which has developed into a sucker, to sharks and other large fishes and uses them for transportation; certain marine hydroids settle on the skin of fish and feed on their excrement; and certain crustaceans (such as acorn barnacles) live on the skin of whales and the shells of mollusks.

(3) The commensal settles in the viscera of the host; for example, the infusorians of subclass Protociliata live in the rectum of frogs, and certain flagellates live in the intestines of mammals.

Parasitism may have originated evolutionarily from commensalism in which the commensal settles in the organs of the host. Symbiosis may also have been an elaboration of commensalism. However, commensalism is not an obligatory transitional step to parasitism or symbiosis; these forms of interrelationship may have originated independently of commensalism in the historical development of the given organisms.

commensalism

[kə′men·sə‚liz·əm]
(ecology)
An interspecific, symbiotic relationship in which two different species are associated, wherein one is benefited and the other neither benefited nor harmed.
References in periodicals archive ?
2nd Group storing the toothbrushes in bathroom without attached toilets, 2 showed commensal flora and 4 showed pathogenic flora and 1-gram positive bacilli.
Alterations in the composition of the commensal flora harboured in the intestinal tract have been detected in SLE, SSc, and SS; however, dysbiosis occurring at mucosal sites, including the mouth, nose, and lungs as well as in the skin, may represent another trigger in these diseases characterized by a high burden of skin and mucosal inflammation.
Commensal flora plays two important roles in bile transformation.
Antimicrobial Peptides Regulate Commensal Flora and Protect against Pathogens.
In the identification process, specimens are analyzed for appropriateness to determine if they represent a true disease process or if they contain large numbers of commensal flora that might compromise accurate interpretation of results.
The gut mucosa is continuously exposed to external food antigens and pathogens and to commensal flora microorganisms, mostly bacteria and fungi.
Use of leftover drugs may increase antimicrobial drug resistance in the community by exerting selective pressure in the commensal flora (3,4).
Prevalence, expressed as percentage, of healthy children carrying antimicrobial drug-resistant Escherichia coli as part of their commensal flora and of children in whom resistant E.
When infections are treated with an antimicrobial agent, all bacteria in the host are affected, including the commensal flora, which could result in the selection of resistant commensals, particularly in children who are administered oral antimicrobial drugs too frequently.
We assessed the quantitative contribution of pig farming to antimicrobial resistance in the commensal flora of pig farmers by comparing 113 healthy pig farmers from the major French porcine production areas to 113 nonfarmers, each matched for sex, age, and county of residence.
Any type of recent antibiotic treatment (not only [beta]-lactam agents) can select PNSP by inhibiting susceptible commensal flora and eradicating penicillin-susceptible pneumococci, thereby indirectly promoting the transmission of PNSP and increasing the prevalence of PNSP in a community or country (9).