Compensation


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compensation

1. the automatic movements made by the body to maintain balance
2. Biology abnormal growth and increase in size in one organ in response to the removal or inactivation of another

Compensation

 

(1) The reaction of an organism to injury (or other disruption of vital activities), by which unimpaired organs and systems undertake the functions of the destroyed structures through compensatory hyperfunction or a qualitative change in their function. For example, after renal shutdown or the removal of a diseased kidney, the substitutive hyperfunction of a healthy kidney ensures the excretion of water, urea, and other metabolic products from the body. Compensatory cardiac hyperfunction ensures normal entry of blood into the tissues when there are heart defects or hypertension. Prolonged substitutive hyperfunction is accompanied by hypertrophy of the overworking organ and can lead to its exhaustion. Compensation of function is one of the most important mechanisms of homeostasis.

(2) The restoration of an organism’s normal development after its disruption by unfavorable internal or external influences. Thus, the retarded growth of animal larvae as a result of insufficient nutrition may be compensated by intensified feeding and accelerated growth in subsequent stages of development. Compensation is one of the forms of self-regulation of organisms. Sometimes the term is used to designate those processes in the phylogeny of organs that are due to the functional replacement of an organ (or a part of it) by a different organ (or part of it).

A. A. MAKHOTIN and F. Z. MEERSON


Compensation

 

(1) In civil law, one of the methods of settling obligations (by offsetting of claims).

(2) In Soviet labor law, payments to production and clerical workers that are made in the cases envisaged by law.


Compensation

 

in psychology, the restoration of the disrupted equilibrium of mental and psychophysiological processes by means of creating an opposite reaction or impulse. In this most general sense, the concept of compensation is widely applied to various mental processes and functions. It has received particular attention in a number of schools of psychoanalysis.

In the individual psychology of A. Adler (Austria), compensation is considered to be the fundamendal factor in the formation of character and of a particular pattern of behavior (”life-style”). Adler considered compensation to be the overcoming of inherent traits of inferiority by developing opposite character and behavioral traits. For example, lack of self-confidence may be compensated by the development of overconfidence.

The Swiss psychologist C. G. Jung, regarding the psyche as an autonomic system, calls compensation a principle of psychic self-regulation and of mutual equilibration of conscious and unconscious tendencies. Thus, according to Jung, unilateral conscious tendencies lead to an intensification of opposite unconscious strivings, which are expressed, for example, in dreams that sharply contrast with conscious perceptions.

D. N. LIALIKOV

compensation

[‚käm·pən′sā·shən]
(control systems)
Introduction of additional equipment into a control system in order to reshape its root locus so as to improve system performance. Also known as stabilization.
(electronics)
The modification of the amplitude-frequency response of an amplifier to broaden the bandwidth or to make the response more nearly uniform over the existing bandwidth. Also known as frequency compensation.
(psychology)
Counterbalancing a weakness or failure in one area by stressing or substituting a strength or success in another area.

compensation

1. Payment for services rendered or products or materials furnished or delivered.
2. Payment in satisfaction of claims for damages suffered.
References in classic literature ?
The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
But when Zenobia's doctor recommended her looking about for some one to help her with the house-work the clan instantly saw the chance of exacting a compensation from Mattie.
However, Volumnia, in the course of her bird-like hopping about and pecking at papers, has alighted on a memorandum concerning herself in the event of "anything happening" to her kinsman, which is handsome compensation for an extensive course of reading and holds even the dragon Boredom at bay.
Fortunately, in these regions, there is some sort of compensation for their ravages, since the natives gather these insects in great numbers and greedily eat them.
At the end of the report the general put before him for signature a paper relating to the recovery of payment from army commanders for green oats mown down by the soldiers, when landowners lodged petitions for compensation.
Effects of external conditions -- Use and disuse, combined with natural selection; organs of flight and of vision -- Acclimatisation -- Correlation of growth -- Compensation and economy of growth -- False correlations -- Multiple, rudimentary, and lowly organised structures variable -- Parts developed in an unusual manner are highly variable: specific characters more variable than generic: secondary sexual characters variable -- Species of the same genus vary in an analogous manner -- Reversions to long lost characters -- Summary.
He assumed that judgment is not executed in this world; that the wicked are successful; that the good are miserable; and then urged from reason and from Scripture a compensation to be made to both parties in the next life.
But in compensation he gave no quarter to the enemy either.
Compensation to the woman when the man gets out of it, is one of the laws of England.
For this immense loss, compensation was soon afterwards made out of the public purse, in pursuance of a vote of the House of Commons; the sum being levied on the various wards in the city, on the county, and the borough of Southwark.
If it is any compensation for my long confinement within these narrow limits--not that I complain of being afflicted; you know I never complain of that--if it is any compensation to me for long confinement to this room, that while I am shut up from all pleasant change I am also shut up from the knowledge of some things that I may prefer to avoid knowing, why should you, of all men, grudge me that belief?
When Mr Silas Wegg did at last obtain free access to 'Our House', as he had been wont to call the mansion outside which he had sat shelterless so long, and when he did at last find it in all particulars as different from his mental plans of it as according to the nature of things it well could be, that far-seeing and far-reaching character, by way of asserting himself and making out a case for compensation, affected to fall into a melancholy strain of musing over the mournful past; as if the house and he had had a fall in life together.

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