competence

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competence

1. Law the state of being legally competent or qualified
2. Embryol the ability of embryonic tissues to react to external conditions in a way that influences subsequent development
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

competence

(especially ETHNOMETHODOLOGY, and by analogy with linguistic competence -see COMPETENCE AND PERFORMANCE) the fundamental capacities (TACIT KNOWLEDGE, etc.) displayed by social actors as 'S killed’ participants (‘members’) in social contexts. See also SACKS.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Competence

 

(1) In immunology, the capacity of the human body or that of any warm-blooded animal for specific immune response (mainly antibody formation), which may be achieved by the collaboration of cells of several categories—principally the immunocompetent (antigen-sensitive and antigen-reactive) lymphoid cells. These cells “recognize” antigen, since even before encountering it they bear a special receptor or synthesize small amounts of immunoglobulins.

In rats and mice, before immunization, approximately one in 5,000 lymphoid cells of the spleen and blood binds a particular antigen—that is, the cell is immunocompetent for that antigen. After stimulation by antigen, immunocompetent cells are transformed into either the precursors of plasma cells, which secrete various immunoglobulins, or sensitized lymphocytes, which are the bearers of structural antibodies. Clones of immunocompetent cells, or X cells, apparently originate from the polypotential stem cells, or S cells (the precursors of all hemopoietic and lymphoid cells), probably under the influence of the hormone of the thymus. In the X cells, the genes that control synthesis of the heavy and light chains of immunoglobulins are probably successively activated and repressed upon encountering antigen. The descendants of X cells are capable of synthesizing antibodies according to an already selected program.

REFERENCE

Fridenshtein, A. Ia., and I. L. Chertkov. Kletochnye osnovy immuni-teta. Moscow, 1969.
A. N. MATS
(2) In embryology, the ability of the cells of animal or plant embryos to react to external influence by the formation of appropriate structures or by differentiation. Competence arises during particular stages of the organism’s development and lasts only a limited time. In the absence of the appropriate influences, the unrealized competence is lost and replaced by a new competence that leads to the formation of organs that will develop later.

T. A. DETLAF


Competence

 

the aggregate of powers (rights and obligations) of some body or official person, as established by the law, the bylaws of the particular body, or other statutes. The competence of judicial bodies is ordinarily determined by law. In the USSR the competence of judicial bodies is determined by the Constitution of the USSR, the constitutions of the Union and autonomous republics, the Statute on the Supreme Court of the USSR of 1957, the Statute on Military Tribunals of 1958, USSR and republic legislation on judicial organization, and criminal procedure and civil procedure legislation.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

competence

[′käm·pəd·əns]
(embryology)
The ability of a reacting system to respond to the inductive stimulus during early developmental stages.
(geology)
The ability of the wind to transport solid particles either by rolling, suspension, or saltation (intermittent rolling and suspension); usually expressed in terms of the weight of a single particle.
(hydrology)
The ability of a stream, flowing at a given velocity, to move the largest particles.
(mining engineering)
A property of rock strata which possess sufficient strength to span a mine opening without failure.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
There is a plan to open a 'service counter' which, managed in collaboration with the unions, will help to co-ordinate the demand and supply of additional labour during the Jubilee event, in addition to organizing educational activities to cover the areas of competance required.
We are investigating that relationship between innate or natural immunological competance and long-term population health by testing the effects of environmental toxicants on the ability of tunicates to deal with artificial and natural infections.
The American Health Lawyers Association (Wash., D.C.) has published Legal Dilemmas of Aging: Fair Housing and Competance, a 40-page paper that examines how the Fair Housing Act affects admission, transfer and discharge decisions, as well as the way in which it "complicates a providers efforts" to provide a discrimination-free environment.
``The aim there is to try and confuse the opposition about what you are doing and where the ballis going, so there are a lot of variations to employ.'' Newcomers to the sport will not be expected to pick up these subtle tactical nuances immediately however, with several different training sessions held each week depending on a player's level of competance. John said: ``We have set aside a session for beginners and recreation, then if players are still keen we'll encourage them to come along to other sessions.