alternative medicine

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alternative medicine,

the treatment and prevention of disease by techniques that are regarded by modern Western medicine as scientifically unproven or unorthodox. The term alternative medicine can encompass a wide range of therapies, including chiropracticchiropractic
[Gr.,=doing by hand], medical practice based on the theory that all disease results from a disruption of the functions of the nerves. The principal source of interference is thought to be displacement (or subluxation) of vertebrae of the spine, although other areas
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, homeopathyhomeopathy
, system of medicine whose fundamental principle is the law of similars—that like is cured by like. It was first given practical application by Samuel Hahnemann of Leipzig, Germany, in the early 19th cent.
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, naturopathynaturopathy
or naturopathic medicine,
branch of alternative medicine concerned with holistic and noninvasive methods of treating illness and maintaining health.
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, acupunctureacupuncture
, technique of traditional Chinese medicine, in which a number of very fine metal needles are inserted into the skin at specially designated points. For thousands of years acupuncture has been used, along with herbal medicine, for pain relief and treatment of various
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, herbal medicineherbal medicine,
use of natural plant substances (botanicals) to treat and prevent illness. The practice has existed since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine for perhaps as much as 80% of the world's population.
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, meditation, biofeedbackbiofeedback,
method for learning to increase one's ability to control biological responses, such as blood pressure, muscle tension, and heart rate. Sophisticated instruments are often used to measure physiological responses and make them apparent to the patient, who then tries
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, massage therapy, and various "new age" therapies such as guided imagery and naturopathy. Although many alternative therapies have long been widely employed in the treatment of disease, the scientifically oriented modern medical establishment has typically been skeptical about, and sometimes strongly opposed to, their use. Despite this, Americans spend billions of dollars on alternative treatments each year. In 1993 the U.S. National Institutes of Health established the Office of Alternative Medicine to examine the merits of such techniques. See also holistic medicineholistic medicine,
system of health care based on a concept of the "whole" person as one whose body, mind, spirit, and emotions are in balance with the environment. Stressing personal responsibility for health, a holistic approach may include conventional medicine and various
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.

alternative medicine

therapeutic practices based on understandings of the human organism, the disease process and its treatment, which are different to those held by Western scientific medicine. Conceptualizing alternative medicine thus always implies some under standing of the principle features of orthodox 'S cientific’ treatment. These are usually held to be:
  1. a mechanical/materialistic understanding of the body and of disease;
  2. a doctrine of ‘specific etiology’, i.e. that all disease is caused by specific material pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, defective genes, etc;
  3. a vigorous interventionist therapeutic stance using surgery or chemical drugs to correct, oppose or reverse the disease process;
  4. patient passivity and compliance with the regimen dictated by an expert profession.

Proceeding in this way towards a ‘negative’ definition of alternative medicine, however, has its dangers as it suggests a unity within both fields which is in fact absent. If regular medicine is materialistic, therapeutically aggressive, etc. (and it sometimes, but not always, is), then it is too easy to assume that all alternative approaches subscribe to opposite principles: viz: a holistic understanding of the body and disease, involving an indissoluble unity of mind and body; a 'S ympathetic’ therapeutic stance, aimed at enhancing the body's own healing processes; a cooperative relationship between therapist and patient; and an active role for the patient in regaining health. While some systems of alternative medicine do exhibit these features (for example, homeopathy), others (such as chiropractic) do not.

Sociological work on alternative medicine is a recent development, and has tended to focus on four main areas:

  1. rather than accepting therapeutic principles at ‘face value’, interest has been shown in the social processes underlying the negotiation of the legitimacy of therapeutic principles, and of medical knowledge in general (thus the regular/alternative boundary is not fixed only by epistemological criteria, but is also historically fluid, and contingent on issues of professional power);
  2. issues of organization and professionalization;
  3. the resurgence of popular (and regular medical) interest in alternative medicine (involving a complex of reasons, all related in some way to a recognition of the damaging effects of science and technology – it is no accident that interest in green politics and green medicine have emerged more or less together);
  4. the increasing interaction between regular and alternative practitioners, and the incorporation of alternative therapy into regular practice (processes which have led to the use of the term ‘complementary therapy’ rather than ‘alternative therapy’).
References in periodicals archive ?
Complementary therapy's results are usually not due 3.50/5 to a placebo effect.
The complementary therapy that I receive is so valuable, but it's just one piece of the jigsaw.
Complementary therapy is a supportive service of non-medical treatments used alongside conventional medicine to enhance symptom control and improve the quality of a patient's life.
Patients and their carers can attend either the morning or afternoon drop-in session, which offers them a place to relax, socialise with other people with similar challenges and opportunities to access helpful advice, family support and complementary therapy treatments.
Paul Battersby, senior lecturer in complementary therapy, said: "Glyndwr University is passionate about using its expertise to support organisations in the region and we're very proud to be able to support Nightingale House Hospice.
The research was carried out between 2009 and 2013 and in that time, two-thirds of women went into spontaneous labour as the result of complementary therapy.
A COMPLEMENTARY therapy service for cancer patients has been launched at Nuneaton's George Eliot Hospital.
With more and more people choosing to develop the skills and qualifications needed to work in this sector, Birmingham Metropolitan College has unveiled some special offers on a variety of hair, beauty and complementary therapy courses beginning in February.
About half of all GPs in the UK now provide some form of complementary therapy for patients in their surgeries and there are more than 2,700 members of the British Medical Acupuncture Society.
The charity holds counselling and complementary therapy sessions at its centre at West Harton Churches Action Station, South Shields.
Entrepreneur Gill MacDonald opened her complementary therapy salon in Newcastle just a few weeks ago and says she has already built up a broad customer base.
A new classroom to train Wales' first complementary therapy degree students has opened.

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