Diabetes Mellitus

(redirected from Complications of Diabetes)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.

diabetes mellitus

[‚dī·ə′bēd·ēz ′mel·ə·dəs]
(medicine)
A metabolic disorder arising from a defect in carbohydrate utilization by the body, related to inadequate or abnormal insulin production by the pancreas.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Diabetes Mellitus

 

a chronic disease characterized by all kinds of metabolic disorders, chiefly carbohydrate, caused by the absolute or (more often) relative deficiency of the pancreatic hormone, insulin.

Heredity plays a major role in the origin of functional insufficiency of the islands of Langerhans of the pancreas, which produce insulin; the functional insufficiency may result from a trauma, inflammation, sclereosis of the pancreatic vessels, infections, intoxication, psychological trauma, excessive consumption of carbohydrates, and overeating in general. The functional condition of the other endocrine glands—the pituitary, adrenals, thyroid, and so forth—and the central and autonomic nervous systems is another factor. Because of the insulin deficiency the liver and muscles become unable to convert sugar into glycogen, and all the tissues lose their capacity to oxidize sugar and use it as an energy source. Moreover, glyconeogenesis also takes place —that is, sugar is formed from proteins and fats. As a result, sugar accumulates in the blood—to as much as 0.2-0.4 g per 100 milliliters of blood or more (hyperglycemia). When the amount of sugar in the blood is more than 0.18 g (“kidney threshold”), some of the sugar in the renal tubules is not reabsorbed and is excreted in the urine (glycosuria).

In more severe cases, liver function weakens, glycogen ceases to be synthesized and accumulates, and the products of protein and fat decomposition are no longer rendered harmless. As a result, a substantial quantity of ketone bodies, especially acetoacetic and /3- hydroxybutyric acids appear in the blood and then in the urine. The accumulation of these acids disturbs the acid-base equilibrium, causing acidosis. Acidosis may result in a diabetic coma.

Diabetes mellitus patients suffer from an intensified appetite and thirst (hunger and thirst may not be very intense in mild cases), increased excretion of urine (up to 5–8 liters a day) with a high specific gravity, itching of the skin and external genitalia, inflammation of the oral mucosa, pain along the nerve trunks (polyneuritis), and muscular and sexual weakness. The menstrual cycle is disturbed in women; spontaneous abortions or stillbirths may occur in pregnant women. The blood cholesterol level rises in diabetics, promoting the early onset of atherosclerosis, which is often combined with hypertonia. Marked changes in the cardiovascular system, kidneys, and eyes are among the serious complications of diabetes mellitus.

Treatment is individualized, taking into account the specific metabolic disorder. In mild forms, a special diet is prescribed, taking into account individual energy expenditures, and exercise therapy (especially for obese persons); in some cases, sugar-reducing sulfanilamide preparations (which are particularly effective in elderly persons with a tendency toward obesity) are prescribed. In moderate and severe forms insulin therapy is undertaken; long-acting insulin preparations with a sugar-reducing action are used to prolong the action of insulin.

REFERENCES

Genes, S. G. Sakharnyi diabet, 5th ed. Moscow, 1963. (Bibliography.)
Diabet, edited by R. Williams. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English; bibliography.)

L. M. GOL’BER

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
They declared: 'These observations show that Parkia biglobosa helps to prevent complications of diabetes hence, could be recommended as a part of the diet of diabetic patients.'
Knowledge on complications of diabetes mellitus among patients with diabetes mellitus--a descriptive study.
When discussing about knowledge regarding oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus the results of my study highlighted the fact that only about 24 percent of the diabetic patients had been given any kind of formal education/ information about oral complications of diabetes while majority 76 percent confided that they had never received any such information.
The government spends billions on complications of diabetes which includes treatment for heart disease, stroke, blindness, renal failure and gangrene of limbs needing amputation, doctors pointed out during the meeting.
Later, it was decided that existing facilities at PIMS can be immediately upgraded by procuring advanced equipment needed for Bariatric Surgery which will require PKR 30-40 million and a PC1 will be submitted for approval to establish a state of art a dedicated centre for Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery and thus will enable the institute to save billions of rupees' spent by the government in treating complications of Diabetes and Cardiovascular diseases due to obesity .
Hence, the current study was carried out with an objective to study the risk factors and complications of diabetes among the diabetic patients.
These assessments can prevent patients from developing "devastating" complications of diabetes such as amputation and blindness, a spokesman said.
[ClickPress, Fri Feb 14 2014] The entire market for microvascular complications of diabetes (MCD) - diabetic nephropathy, retinopathy, and neuropathy - is facing an extremely high level of unmet need across the 7MM (US, 5EU and Japan).
The development of type 2 diabetes among young individuals has significant public health consequences as these youth are likely to manifest the complications of diabetes, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and cardiovascular disease, at a time that should be the most active and productive of their lives.
It enables people with diabetes to reduce their risk of potentially fatal short-term complications of diabetes such as hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis, as well as long-term complications such as blindness and amputations.
Kashyap adds that the next phase of research needs to zero in on whether bariatric surgery can also have a positive impact on the complications of diabetes, such as retinopathy and neuropathy.
"This campaign provides an opportunity to conduct preventive testing for diabetes patients, such as retinal testing for prevention of blindness, which is one of the most important complications of diabetes.