Components


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components

Stars, or possibly planets, that are constituent members of a binary star, triple star, or multiple-star system.

Components

 

in biology, the species of plants that constitute a phytocenosis and vegetate annually, regardless of climatic conditions (in particular, independent of soil moisture).

Components differ from ingredients, which, although predominantly annual, vegetate only in years of sufficient moisture. Examples of components are feather grass and fescue. Sometimes the term “component” is used to designate any organism (including animals) in a biocenosis, or any living or non-living element of the biogeosphere, biogeocenosis, or ecosystem.


Components

 

(in thermodynamics and chemistry), independent components, chemically individual substances that make up a thermodynamic system.

The term “components” does not refer to the total number of constituents but rather to the number of constituents that is sufficient to obtain the composition of any phase of a system. Thus, in a system consisting of calcium oxide, CaO, and carbon dioxide, CO2, calcium carbonate is formed according to the reaction CaO + CO2 ⇄ CaCO3. In this system, we may consider CaO and CO2 as the independent components and CaCO3 as the product of their reaction. With equal justification, CaO and CaCO3 can be considered as the components and CO2 as the product of the thermal dissociation of CaCO3.

It is characteristic of components that the mass of each component in a system does not depend on the mass of the other components; components may be independently introduced into a system and removed from it. Thus, in chemical systems in which the constituents enter chemical reactions, the number of components is determined by the difference between the number of constituent substances and the number of independent chemical reactions that may proceed in the system.

A system in which the substances do not react with one another is termed a physical system (for example, the liquid benzene-glycerin mixture). For such systems the number of components is equal to the number of constituents. Depending on the number of components, systems are termed one-component, two-component (binary systems), three-component (ternary systems), and multicomponent systems. The concept of components was introduced in 1875–76 by the American physicist J. W. Gibbs.

REFERENCES

Gibbs, J. W. Termodinamicheskie raboty. Moscow-Leningrad, 1950. Pages 95, 104–05. (Translated from English.)
Kursfizicheskoikhimii, vol. 1. General editor la. I. Gerasimov. Moscow, 1969. Page 331.
Anosov, V. Ia., and S. A. Pogodin. Osnovnye nachala fiziko-khimicheskogo analiza. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947. Page 43.
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