Compromise of 1850


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Compromise of 1850

Compromise of 1850. The annexation of Texas to the United States and the gain of new territory by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the close of the Mexican War (1848) aggravated the hostility between North and South concerning the question of the extension of slavery into the territories. The antislavery forces favored the proposal made in the Wilmot Proviso to exclude slavery from all the lands acquired from Mexico. This, unsurprisingly, met with violent Southern opposition. When California sought (1849) admittance to the Union as a free state, a grave crisis threatened. Also causing friction was the conflict over the boundary claims of Texas, which extended far westward into territory claimed by the United States. In addition, the questions of the slave trade and the fugitive slave laws had long been vexing. There was some fear that, in the event of strong antislavery legislation, the Southern states might withdraw from the Union altogether.

The possibility of the disintegration of the Union was deprecated by many but was alarming to some, among them Henry Clay, who emerged from retirement to enter the Senate again. President Taylor was among those who felt that the Union was not threatened; he favored admission of California as a free state and encouragement of New Mexico to enter as a free state. These sentiments were voiced in Congress by William H. Seward. John C. Calhoun and other Southerners, particularly Jefferson Davis, maintained that the South should be given guarantees of equal position in the territories, of the execution of fugitive slave laws, and of protection against the abolitionists.

Clay proposed passage of a series of measures, originally separate then combined as an omnibus compromise bill. Support for this plan was largely organized by Stephen A. Douglas. The measures were the admission of California as a free state; the organization of New Mexico and Utah territories without mention of slavery, the status of that institution to be determined by the territories themselves when they were ready to be admitted as states (this formula came to be known as popular sovereignty); the prohibition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia; a more stringent fugitive slave law; and the settlement of Texas boundary claims by federal payment of $10 million on the debt contracted by the Republic of Texas.

These proposals faced great opposition, but Daniel Webster greatly enhanced the chances for their acceptance by his famous speech on Mar. 7, 1850. Taylor's death and the accession of conservative Millard Fillmore to the presidency made the compromise more feasible. After long debates and failure to pass the omnibus bill, Congress passed the measures as separate bills in Sept., 1850. Many people, North and South, hailed the compromise as a final solution to the question of slavery in the territories, but the measures lacked broad support as a group in Congress, each having been passed by different legislative coalitions. The issue of the extension of slavery reemerged in 1854 with the Kansas-Nebraska Act, and seven years later the factions were fighting the Civil War.

Bibliography

See E. C. Rozwenc, The Compromise of 1850 (1957); H. Hamilton, Prologue to Conflict (1964); F. M. Bordewich, America's Great Debate (2012).

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References in periodicals archive ?
For instance, while one of the SIMs is about the Compromise of 1850 and you do learn the major causes of it, in your Senate role you are presented with information and have to decide what values are most important to you and what are you willing to negotiate.
Calhoun, and Daniel Webster; their task being to recreate a bill for the Compromise of 1850. These students were from the A.P.
He was largely responsible for the Compromise of 1850 that apparently settled slavery issues; however, in 1854 he reopened the slavery question with the Kansas--Nebraska Act, which opened some previously prohibited territories to slavery under popular sovereignty.
The Fugitive Slave Act was part of the Compromise of 1850, designed to maintain slavery in the United States while avoiding secession or civil war.
The result of that constitutional impasse--where Southern states refused to honor humanity and abolish slavery, while Northern states refused to honor their constitutional obligations to return fugitive slaves--was the Compromise of 1850, which involved multiple compromises: It continued the Missouri Compromise (which decided slavery would be prohibited in most Western territories); banned the slave trade but not slavery itself in Washington.
HISTORY - Civil war seemed imminent until the Compromise of 1850 was introduced and then repackaged, thereby averting Southern secession.
Puleo's comprehensive chronicle outlines the "domino effect" of the period's other portentous events -- the Compromise of 1850; the Fugitive Slave Law; John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry; the Dred Scott Supreme Court case; the rise of the antislavery Republican Party; the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency in 1860 -- and shows with mastery how these measures conspired to dissolve the Union.
For those unfamiliar with the Civil War, the remaining chapters provide an introduction to the causes of and events during the "War between the States." Guelzo addresses the extensive list of events, legislation, and electoral developments that historians have long pointed to as integral for understanding the Civil War (e.g., the Mexican American War, Wilmot's Proviso, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act, the rise of the Republican party, Dred Scott, John Brown's raid, Lincoln's election).
The Compromise of 1850 was a severe fugitive slave law that increased tensions between the North and the South - even those Northerners who supported the law to preserve the Union despised being forced into the role of slave catchers.
Shortly after taking office, Fillmore signed into law various measures that constituted the Compromise of 1850, which included a continuance of slavery in the District of Columbia and a new Fugitive Slave Law that made federal officials responsible for recovering runaway slaves.
Two years after he wrote the Nicholson letter, and as Congress debated the Compromise of 1850, Cass specifically stated that popular sovereignty meant that the territories could legislate on the slavery issue.
If I'm speaking to upper-elementary school students, I might work in a bit about the Fugitive Slave Act or the Compromise of 1850. With middle- and high-school students, I can talk about the politics of the time, the problems Abraham Lincoln faced with the Union generals.