grid computing

(redirected from Computational Grid)

grid computing,

the concurrent application of the processing and data storage resources of many computerscomputer,
device capable of performing a series of arithmetic or logical operations. A computer is distinguished from a calculating machine, such as an electronic calculator, by being able to store a computer program (so that it can repeat its operations and make logical
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 in a network to a single problem. It also can be used for load balancing as well as high availability by employing multiple computers—typically personal computers and workstations—that are remote from one another, multiple data storage devices, and redundant network connections. Grid computing requires the use of parallel processingparallel processing,
the concurrent or simultaneous execution of two or more parts of a single computer program, at speeds far exceeding those of a conventional computer.
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 software that can divide a program among as many as several thousand computers and restructure the results into a single solution of the problem. Primarily for security reasons, grid computing is typically restricted to multiple computers within the same enterprise, but a number of scientific projects—including SETISETI
[Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence], name given to a series of independent programs to detect radio signals from civilizations beyond the solar system.
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, CERN's Large Hadron Collider, and the study of protein folding—have utilized computers volunteered by individuals and connected to the Internet.

Grid computing evolved from the parallel processing systems of the 1970s, the large-scale cluster computing systems of the 1980s, and the distributed processing systems of the 1990s, and is often referred to by these names. Grid computing can make a more cost-effective use of computer resources, harnessing computer microprocessors when they otherwise would be unused, and can be applied to solve problems that require large amounts of computing power.

Bibliography

See A. S. Tanenbaum and M. van Steen, Distributed Systems (2001); F. Berman, G. Fox, and A. J. G. Hey, Grid Computing (2003); A. Abbas, Grid Computing (2003).

grid computing

(1) May refer to a cloud computing service that provides a complete server infrastructure but not applications. See cloud computing.

(2) A parallel processing architecture in which CPU resources are shared across a network, and all machines function as one large supercomputer. It allows unused CPU capacity in all participating machines to be allocated to one application that is extremely computation intensive and programmed for parallel processing.

There Is a Lot of Idle Time
In a large enterprise, hundreds or thousands of desktop machines sit idle at any given moment. Even when a user is at the computer reading the screen and not typing or clicking, it constitutes idle time. These unused cycles can be put to use on large computational problems. Likewise, the millions of users on the Internet waste massive amounts of machine cycles every minute that could be harnessed instead. This is precisely what the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence program does with Internet users all over the world (see SETI).

Naturally, grid computing over the Internet requires more extensive security than within a single enterprise, and robust authentication is employed in such applications.

Peer-to-Peer and Distributed Computing
Grid computing is also called "peer-to-peer computing" and "distributed computing," the latter term first coined in the 1970s, which had no relationship to this concept. See distributed computing, PC philanthropy and anticiparallelism. See also peer-to-peer network and peer-to-peer.
References in periodicals archive ?
If the computational grid is structured, he says, it is possible to develop a pseudo-multigrid approach to space-type problems with the least number of problem-dependent components, close-to-optimal complexity, and high parallel efficiency.
Furthermore, we adapted WRF such that for all vertical layers within the finest computational grid, turbulent diffusion is calculated with the Smagorinsky first-order closure [three-dimensional (3D)] option.
However, in case of the adoption of a quasi-3D model, the generation of the computational grid can be a time-consuming operation, making the quasi-3D tool a less attractive option since the gain in terms of lower computational burden is often counterbalanced by the longer time required for the setup of the model.
To increase the accuracy of computations based on a previous study [7], the aspect ratios of the computational grid were carefully checked and properly adjusted.
Figure 3 shows the computational grid for the flow over the cavity with D/L = 2.
Uthariaraj, "Hierarchical Status Information Exchange Scheduling and Load Balancing For Computational Grid Environments," IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.
The amount of the numerical diffusion error in the calculation is related to the resolution of the computational grid used in the simulation.
The computational grid created for the region around the hand moves in accordance with a stroke path, as shown in Figure 2.
There are already some research efforts in computational grid resource scheduling and allocation, whose solutions may be summarized as system-centric mechanism, user-centric mechanism and economy-based mechanism [4].
Integrating sensor networks and grid computing in sensor-grid computing is like giving 'eyes' and 'ears' to the computational grid.

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