computer program

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computer program,

a series of instructions that a computercomputer,
device capable of performing a series of arithmetic or logical operations. A computer is distinguished from a calculating machine, such as an electronic calculator, by being able to store a computer program (so that it can repeat its operations and make logical
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 can interpret and execute; programs are also called software to distinguish them from hardware, the physical equipment used in data processingdata processing
or information processing,
operations (e.g., handling, merging, sorting, and computing) performed upon data in accordance with strictly defined procedures, such as recording and summarizing the financial transactions of a business.
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. These programming instructions cause the computer to perform arithmetic and logical operations or comparisons (and then take some additional action based on the comparison) or to input or output data in a desired sequence. In conventional computing the operations are executed sequentially; in parallel processingparallel processing,
the concurrent or simultaneous execution of two or more parts of a single computer program, at speeds far exceeding those of a conventional computer.
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 the operations are allocated among multiple processors, which execute them concurrently and share the results. Programs are often written as a series of subroutines, which can be used in more than one program or at more than one point in the same program.

Systems programs are those that control the operation of the computer. Chief among these is the operating system—also called the control program, executive, or supervisor—which schedules the execution of other programs, allocates system resources, and controls input and output operations. Processing programs are those whose execution is controlled by the operating system. Language translators decode source programs, written in a programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
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, and produce object programs, which are in machine language and can be understood by the computer. These include assemblers, which translate symbolic languages that have a one-to-one relationship with machine language; compilers, which translate an algorithmic- or procedural-language program into a machine-language program to be executed at a later time; and interpreters, which translate source-language statements into object-language statements for immediate execution. Other processing programs are service or utility programs, such as those that "dump" computer memory to external storage for safekeeping and those that enable the programmer to "trace" program execution, and application programs, which perform business and scientific functions, such as payroll processing, accounts payable and receivable posting, word processing, and simulation of environmental conditions.

Bibliography

See F. Maddix and G. Morgan, Systems Software: An Introduction to Language Processors and Operating Systems (1989).

computer program

computer program

Instructions for the computer to follow. The terms "program," "software" and "application" are all computer programs. See software and instruction.
References in periodicals archive ?
While pointing to the fact that Turkey along with China and Pakistan are the top three countries with the highest piracy rates, GE[micro]koy-lu said Turkey's usage of illegal computer programs takes up to 60 percent of the total usage of computer programs.
The Directive 2009/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the legal protection of computer programs
Throughout relevant history, United States Copyright law emerged as the most applicable intellectual property protection available to computer programs. This was due to the fact that computer programs and some of their related components tend to fit rather well into Copyright law.
To prepare for a second try at the rescue mission, Furman and Anthony Talpak, 12, focused on fixing the computer program. Builders Alex Gadas, 10, and Nadia Makos, 12, put in a faster motor.
On a preliminary basis, the French delegation suggested, in the event claims about a computer programme are not included in the scope of article 5, that thought might be given to adapting the definition of counterfeiting so as to allow holders of licences for programme-implementable inventions to take legal action against people who copy and/or sell copies of media featuring the computer program underlying the invention.
The ORSTA defines "tangible personal property" to include computer programs and "taxable services" to include "labour provided to install, assemble, dismantle, adjust, repair or maintain tangible personal property, and any contract for the service, maintenance or warranty of tangible personal property." The Act does not, however, define the following terms: installing, assembling, dismantling, adjusting, repairing or maintaining tangible personal property.
The website includes the raw 3-D datafiles, a description of the material imaged for each data set, example two-dimensional images and visualizations for each data set, and a collection of C language computer programs that will be of use in processing and analyzing the 3-D microstructural images.
They are introduced to computers in school, and their usual 'career path' starts with illegally copying computer programs. Serious offenders then get into a progression of computer crimes including telecommunications fraud (making free long distance calls), unauthorized access to other computers (hacking for fun and profit), and credit card fraud (obtaining cash advances, purchasing equipment through computers)." [12] Therefore, the entire criminal justice community must not ignore or downplay the significance of computer delinquency because these "wayward youths" may present future problems when they enter adulthood.
Some computer programs automatically choose the best set of beats and calculate the average for you.
The report claims the pirating of computer programs and music CD's by Israeli entrepreneurs is costing the copyright holders an estimated $170 million a year.

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