computer program

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computer program,

a series of instructions that a computercomputer,
device capable of performing a series of arithmetic or logical operations. A computer is distinguished from a calculating machine, such as an electronic calculator, by being able to store a computer program (so that it can repeat its operations and make logical
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 can interpret and execute; programs are also called software to distinguish them from hardware, the physical equipment used in data processingdata processing
or information processing,
operations (e.g., handling, merging, sorting, and computing) performed upon data in accordance with strictly defined procedures, such as recording and summarizing the financial transactions of a business.
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. These programming instructions cause the computer to perform arithmetic and logical operations or comparisons (and then take some additional action based on the comparison) or to input or output data in a desired sequence. In conventional computing the operations are executed sequentially; in parallel processingparallel processing,
the concurrent or simultaneous execution of two or more parts of a single computer program, at speeds far exceeding those of a conventional computer.
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 the operations are allocated among multiple processors, which execute them concurrently and share the results. Programs are often written as a series of subroutines, which can be used in more than one program or at more than one point in the same program.

Systems programs are those that control the operation of the computer. Chief among these is the operating system—also called the control program, executive, or supervisor—which schedules the execution of other programs, allocates system resources, and controls input and output operations. Processing programs are those whose execution is controlled by the operating system. Language translators decode source programs, written in a programming languageprogramming language,
syntax, grammar, and symbols or words used to give instructions to a computer. Development of Low-Level Languages

All computers operate by following machine language programs, a long sequence of instructions called machine code that is
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, and produce object programs, which are in machine language and can be understood by the computer. These include assemblers, which translate symbolic languages that have a one-to-one relationship with machine language; compilers, which translate an algorithmic- or procedural-language program into a machine-language program to be executed at a later time; and interpreters, which translate source-language statements into object-language statements for immediate execution. Other processing programs are service or utility programs, such as those that "dump" computer memory to external storage for safekeeping and those that enable the programmer to "trace" program execution, and application programs, which perform business and scientific functions, such as payroll processing, accounts payable and receivable posting, word processing, and simulation of environmental conditions.

Bibliography

See F. Maddix and G. Morgan, Systems Software: An Introduction to Language Processors and Operating Systems (1989).

computer program

computer program

Instructions for the computer to follow. The terms "program," "software" and "application" are all computer programs. See software and instruction.
References in periodicals archive ?
Also, computer programs are protected as literary works within the meaning of Article 2 of the Berne Convention and such protection applies to computer programs, whatever may be the mode or form of their expression (x).
Israel's Justice Minister Yossi Beilin will fly to Washington Thursday to meet with Attorney General Janet Reno, following American threats to impose sanctions because of allegations of illegal music and computer program copying in the Jewish State.
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It is, of course, possible to create a detailed profile to satisfy the parameters of the department of health memorandum, particularly when computer programs are used.
Because of the amount of time that is required to enter data into the system, Thomson says some brokers are waiting for their client roster to reach a level which merits using some of the computer programs.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: (1) to illustrate the concept of representing occupations with a tree-like data structure; and (2) to demonstrate how this hierarchical data structure can be used to conceptualize the development of a computer program that will systematically take into account both the concepts of P-JR and P-WE fit in job-matching.
Revenues for the markets and sub-sectors Computer Programs and Systems, Inc operates in by country and region.
One way to reduce that impact is to convert computer programs into music, propose James L.
However, every time they try to access a computer program, they get the same error message.
Under an agreement signed Wednesday between the school and the Pasadena-based JPL, as many as 20 students will help develop unique computer programs that could help boost crop harvests and improve weather forecasting.

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