an industrial sector producing concentrated feeds and protein-vitamin supplements for all types of farm animals. The industrial production of concentrated feeds frees the livestock farm from the preparation of feeds for the animals and helps to industrialize livestock raising.
Prerevolutionary Russia did not have a concentrates industry. It was created in the USSR during the first five-year plan (1929–32) and developed particularly from the 1950’s through the early 1970’s (see Table 1).
|Table 1. Production of concentrated feeds in the USSR (tons)|
|1950 ...............||65,000||750,000||1 ,099,000|
|1971 ...............||7,000,00 0||13,890,000||26,500,000|
The concentrates industry produces concentrated feeds in loose (powdery), granulated, and pelletized form. The production of granulated concentrated feeds has increased from 90,000 tons in 1965 to 3,400,000 tons in 1971. From 1966 to 1970 the concentrates industry began to produce protein-vitamin supplements, which the kolkhozes and sovkhozes mix with pulverized grain to obtain a balanced concentrated feed. In 1971 the USSR produced 265,000 tons of protein-vitamin supplements, which was the basis for the manufacture of about 1.6 million tons of concentrated feed. The overall quality of the concentrated feeds has been improved significantly.
The concentrates industry consists of independent plants as well as of workshops at flour-milling, groat, and grain-receiving enterprises. Modern concentrated feed plants are highly mechanized and automated enterprises. On Jan. 1, 1970, the Soviet concentrates industry had more than 530 enterprises and workshops.
In the other socialist countries, the production of concentrated feeds in 1970 was 4 million tons in Poland, 1.5 million tons in Hungary, and 1.5 million tons in Bulgaria (1969).
Concentrated feed production in the individual capitalist nations was 50 million tons in the USA in 1969, 11.4 million tons in Japan in 1968, 10.7 million tons in Great Britain in 1969, and 7.9 million tons in West Germany in 1968–69.
REFERENCESDemidov, P. G. Tekhnologiia kombikormovogo proizvodstva. Moscow, 1968.
Danilin, A. S. Proizvodstvo kombikormov za rubezhom. Moscow, 1968.
Proizvodstvo belkovo-vitaminnykh dobavok i premiksov. Moscow, 1969.
Sokolov, A. Ia. Kombikormovye zavody. Moscow, 1970.
Pavliuchenkov, A. K. Ekonomika proizvodstva kombikormov. Moscow, 1971.
I. I. BALASHOV