Our orientation response following the sound of our name is a behavior that, like the generalized conditioned reinforcer
effect, is usually emitted with a high probability regardless of the subject deprivation level and, presumably, is acquired with certain speed.
Prior to the conditioning intervention we tested, print stimuli were not conditioned reinforcers
for observing responses for the participants in the present study and they had experienced extreme difficulty in acquiring visual discriminations from direct instruction.
Whereas research supports both stimulus-stimulus and response-stimulus procedures for establishing preferred stimuli, a third method--first described by Greer, Singer-Dudek, and Gautreaux (2006) and later by Greer and Singer-Dudek (2008)--involves the acquisition of new conditioned reinforcers
as a function of observation, or observational conditioning (Singer-Dudek, Choi, & Lyons, 2013).
Second, although your nods and smiles now function as a conditioned reinforcer
, they will not be generalized: They will only function as reinforcers as long as those edibles are reinforcing, i.
Similarly, delay reduction theory (Fantino 1969) predicts that for any stimulus, the presence of which is associated with a reduction in the delay to reinforcement (relative to its absence), will become a conditioned reinforcer
Later experiments found additional support for the view that pigeons' choices depend, not on the total delay to food, but only on those portions of the delay to food that are signaled by distinctive conditioned reinforcers
This usage is comparable to the description of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers
and punishers (cf, Michael 1993b; Pierce and Cheney 2008; Skinner 1953).
As DRT has been interpreted (Fantino, 2000; Grace & Savastano, 2000), the value of a conditioned reinforcer
is influenced by its context, such that a stimulus that signals a greater percentage improvement to reinforcement should be a more valuable conditioned reinforcer
than a stimulus that signals a smaller percentage improvement to reinforcement.
Despite devaluation of the reinforcer, the CS functioned as an effective conditioned reinforcer
for a novel response.
That is, Participants B and C remained in baseline while Participant A completed the intervention condition until washer reinforcement was shown to have become a conditioned reinforcer
for Participant A's learning tasks.
In summary, research developed to assess a conditioned reinforcer
account of stimulus function in chained schedules of reinforcement, by means of comparing response rates produced by both chained and tandem schedules, has failed to produce conclusive evidence.
Broadly defined, a conditioned reinforcer
is a once-neutral stimulus that acquires reinforcing function (Hendry, 1969; Hull, 1943; Kelleher & Gollub, 1962; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950; Williams, 1994).