confession

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confession,

in law, the formal admission of criminal guilt, usually obtained in the course of examination by the police or prosecutor or at trial. For a confession to be admissible as evidenceevidence,
in law, material submitted to a judge or a judicial body to resolve disputed questions of fact. The rules discussed in this article were developed in England for use in jury trials.
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 against an accused individual, it generally must have been procured voluntarily after the person was informed of his or her right to remain silent and right to consult an attorney (see Miranda v. ArizonaMiranda v. Arizona,
U.S. Supreme Court case (1966) in the area of due process of law (see Fourteenth Amendment). The decision reversed an Arizona court's conviction of Ernesto Miranda on kidnapping and rape charges.
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). If a confession is obtained through torture, threats, prolonged interrogation, or false promises of immunity from prosecution, it is inadmissible, but law enforcement officials may and do use psychological pressure, which can lead to false confessions. A signed confession is presumed to be voluntary, and the accused must introduce proof that it was extorted in order to prevent its introduction at the trial. In 1981 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that murder defendants should be informed of their right to remain silent during interviews with psychologists, who might later testify for the prosecution that the client was "dangerous" and thus deserving of a stiff penalty. A 1986 ruling stated that a criminal defendant entering a plea of "not guilty" had the right to describe to the court how his confession was obtained by police. The ideal of a voluntary confession was upset recently, however, in the case of Arizona v. Fulminante (1991). There, the Supreme Court ruled that coerced confessions do not invariably nullify a conviction, but can be regarded merely as "harmless errors"—at least where additional incriminating evidence is available. Usually, a person who does not plead guilty cannot be convicted solely on the basis of his confession.

Bibliography

See P. Brooks, Troubling Confessions: Speaking Guilt in Law and Literature (2000).

Enlarge picture
Confessional inside the Cathedral of St. Pol-de-Leon, Brittany, France. Fortean Picture Library.

Confession

(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

A Christian "confession" carries with it the meaning of agreeing to a particular statement of faith. For example, the minister sometimes invites a congregation to read the Apostles' Creed (see Gnosticism) by saying, "Let us together make our confession of faith." But perhaps the most familiar meaning of the word refers to the Catholic tradition of confessing ad auriculam, "into the ear of" a priest. The practice began in the medieval church. The Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 declared confession had to be at least an annual event if the confessor wanted to receive the host during Eucharist. In the sixteenth century, in order to provide privacy and a more substantial ritual, confessional stalls began to be used. It has always been the law of the land that anything said to a priest was absolutely confidential. The priest took a holy vow that he was bound not to reveal anything told him in the confessional. But recently, as a result of child-abuse scandals in the Catholic church, state legislatures are beginning to question the practice of excusing priests and ministers from lists of people, such as doctors and social workers, who are required to report instances of child abuse. In May 2002 the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, for example, eliminated from the list of exceptions ministers of denominations who did not use confessionals by tradition.

Terrorist threats raised more questions. If a terrorist, seeking to save his soul after committing murder, confesses to a priest bound by the power of the confessional, is the priest obligated to remain silent?

It remains to be seen how long the Church will be able to hold out from social pressure requiring, for the public good, at least some confidentiality to be discarded.

confession, confessio

1.The tomb of a martyr or confessor; if an altar was erected over the grave, the name was also extended to the altar and to the subterranean chamber in which it stood; in later times a basilica was sometimes erected over the chamber and the entire building was known as a confession.
2. The space immediately below, or in front of, the primary altar of a church.

confession

1. Christianity Chiefly RC Church the act of a penitent accusing himself of his sins
2. confession of faith a formal public avowal of religious beliefs
3. a religious denomination or sect united by a common system of beliefs
References in periodicals archive ?
Goen, Revivalism and Separatism in New England, 1740-1800: Strict Congregationalists and Separate Baptists in the Great Awakening (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1962), 293-294; McGlothlin, Baptist Confessions of Faith, 300-301; William H.
The synodikon thus serves as the immediate forerunner to the liturgical confessions of faith preceding the ordination of a bishop, with no corresponding liturgical form.
(40) For, in assenting to the Agreement, the participating churches "in loyalty to the confessions of faith which bind them" declare that "the doctrinal condemnations expressed in the confessional documents no longer apply to the contemporary doctrinal position of the assenting churches"; and that "they accord each other table and pulpit fellowship; this includes the mutual recognition of ordination and the freedom to provide for intercelebration." (41)
But they did draft confessions of faith and formulas of concord.
McGlothlin, Baptist Confessions of Faith (Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1911), 109-122 and W.L.
According to Pelikan, it is the nature of Christendom that the development of theological reflection defines the formal character of confessions of faith. Based on the "Schema Israel" (Deuteronomy 6:4), the Old Church of necessity developed the classical creeds of the early church and the theological developments that supported the first confessions of faith.
This is the introductory volume to the four-volume Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition edited by Jaroslav Pelikan and Valerie Hotchkiss.
The articles on theological topics present a good concise statement of Reformed teaching and are illustrated by judicious references to the writings of the Reformers or to the Reformed confessions of faith, while those on issues of social justice demonstrate constant engagement with the issues of human community.
This articulation has been evident primarily in the confessions of faith of the tradition.
In their ongoing struggle over the contents of several written confessions of faith, both Askew and her interrogators show a keen awareness of the conversion potential such documents have to sw ay popular religious beliefs.
Anabaptist-Mennonite Confessions of Faith: The Development of a Tradition.