confirmation

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confirmation

confirmation, Christian rite in which the initiation into the church that takes place by baptism is confirmed. In the Roman Catholic and Orthodox Eastern churches, it is a sacrament by which a Christian is strengthened in his faith. In the Lutheran and Anglican churches it is universally used, but it is not a sacrament (except among High Anglicans). In the East it is conferred by the priest on the newly baptized person of any age. In the West it is ordinarily an episcopal function, and the recipient has reached a canonical age of discretion. Confirmation consists of the laying on of hands and anointing with chrism, a mixture of oil and balm; Anglicans and Lutherans have abandoned the anointing. Some other Protestant churches use the term confirmation for the ceremony of admitting baptized persons into full church membership. Scriptural passages cited as authority for confirmation include Acts 8.14–17; 19.
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confirmation

1. a rite in several Christian churches that confirms a baptized person in his faith and admits him to full participation in the church
2. (in the philosophy of science) the relationship between an observation and the theory which it supposedly renders more probable
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Bitcoin confirmation

A Bitcoin transaction is confirmed when it is combined in a block with other transactions and added to the blockchain. A new block is added approximately every 10 minutes, and every new block added thereafter means greater assurance of an irreversible transaction. For very large value transactions, six confirmations are generally desired, which can take an hour. For multi-million-dollar transactions, dozens of confirmations may be required. However, to buy an inexpensive item or send a small amount of coins to someone, very often no confirmation is needed.

Layer 2 Chains
To deal with confirmation delays, independent blockchains known as "sidechains" or "Layer 2 chains" are used to handle small transactions, each chain having no confirmation requirement or its own confirmation equivalency. After a certain number of transactions are added to these auxiliary chains, a summary is added to the main blockchain such as Bitcoin or Ethereum, which makes the transactions incontestable (see sidechain and Layer 2 blockchain). See Bitcoin mining and Bitcoin.
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References in periodicals archive ?
So when all my Catholic school pals chose solid Irish saints for their Confirmation Name, I informed the priest I was now Colette, founder of 17 convents and healer of papal schism.
If I were being confirmed today, I would take the following Confirmation name because:
Inspired by an older cousin who was being confirmed at the time, Christine began to ponder which Confirmation name she would like to adopt.
I chose for my confirmation name a very awkward "Edwardine." People laughed at me for that, but I am comforted.

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