Thus, it is difficult to establish reference ranges because confounding factors
impose restrictions on the interpretation of individual results.
After the data were adjusted for potential confounding factors
including age, smoking and body mass index, the study found that eating more whole grains was associated with lower total mortality and lower CVD mortality but not cancer deaths.
We hypothesized that insomnia that was persistent over eight years, rather than intermittent insomnia, was associated with death independent of the effects of sedatives, opportunity for sleep (to distinguish it from sleep deprivation), and other confounding factors
in a representative sample of the general adult community, explained lead investigator Sairam Parthasarathy, MD, associate professor of medicine at the University of Arizona College of Medicine Tucson and director of the Center for Sleep Disorders at the University of Arizona Medical Center--University Campus (soon to be Banner University Medical Center Tucson).
Secondly, there was significant variation in two of the confounding factors
between girls who developed ASD and those that didn't--fathers were significantly older and birth weight was lower, compared to the controls.
But worse, the study fails to allow for a whole range of confounding factors
These associations remained significant after adjustment for various potential confounding factors
They found that resistance exercise and lower intensity muscular conditioning exercises were both independently associated with a reduced risk for diabetes, even after adjusting for aerobic activity and many other potential confounding factors
They also look at potential adult life confounding factors
such as vitamin D supplementation, sun exposure, dairy product use, fatty fish consumption, smoking, body mass index, ancestry, multiple sclerosis heredity and socioeconomic group.
35) for the highest quartile relative to the lowest after adjusting for total vegetables and fruits intakes and other potential confounding factors
Most of those studies had either few numbers of cases or they were not adjusted for confounding factors
Potential confounding factors
were ascertained from parent interviews and medical charts.
could have created bias in this registry analysis that makes interpretation of improved survival impossible.