For these studies, Costa analyzes the reports by the works' censors (given in appendices) which were presented to a group of the Congregation of the Index
When the archive of the Roman Inquisition, now called the Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, opened in the late 1990s, scholars found that the records of the Congregation of the Index were also there and that they were very rich.
As objections mounted, the Congregation of the Index ordered Abbot Marcantonio Maffa (1547-99) to evaluate the work.
These were (1) the decrees of the Congregation of the Index of 5 March 1616 and 15 May 1620, in which the works of Copernicus, Diego da Zuniga, and Paolo Foscarini, together with "all books teaching that the Earth moves and the Sun stands still," were placed on the Index, and (2) a few details of the deliberations of the Congregation of the Index on 16 April 1757 and two decrees of the Holy Office, those of 16 August 1820 and 11 September 1822, which were published by Antonio Favaro, editor of the National Edition of the works of Galileo (20 vols.
In the meeting of the Congregation of the Index on 16 April 1757, it was decided to suppress the clause "all books teaching .
In January, 1998, Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger quietly announced the opening of the archives of the Roman Inquisition (founded in 1542), including the archives of the Congregation of the Index of Prohibited Books (1571-1917), for purposes of scholarly research.
Godman disclaims any intent to revise in favorem the Holy Office, the Congregation of the Index, or Bellarmine's role as censor from the hasty and partisan conclusions of sixteenth-century confessional and various later liberal polemics, but he does mean to explain them on their own terms, which is the historian's proper business (p.
As empirical evidence and theoretical coherence multiplied on the Copernicans, some high ecclesiastics not only winked, but unsuccessfully tried to reassure the faithful: upon receiving a Copernican armillary sphere from the cardinal-president of the Congregation of the Index
in the early eighteenth century, the Bolognese Academy of Sciences nervously commissioned Ptolemaic and Tychonic counterparts for it.