Congress of Racial Equality


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Congress of Racial Equality

(CORE), civil-rights organization founded (1942) in Chicago by James Farmer. Dedicated to the use of nonviolent direct action, CORE initially sought to promote better race relations and end racial discrimination in the United States. It first focused on activities directed toward the desegregation of public accommodations in Chicago, later expanding its program of nonviolent sit-ins to the South. CORE gained national recognition by sponsoring (1961) the Freedom Rides, a series of confrontational bus rides throughout the South by interracial groups of CORE members and supporters that ultimately succeeding in ending segregation on interstate bus routes. CORE was one of the sponsors of the 1963 civil-rights march on Washington. After 1966, when Farmer resigned, the organization concentrated more on black voter registration in the South and on community problems. Later leaders have focused on African-American political and economic empowerment and have tended to agree with civil-rights critics such as Presidents Ronald ReaganReagan, Ronald Wilson
, 1911–2004, 40th president of the United States (1981–89), b. Tampico, Ill. In 1932, after graduation from Eureka College, he became a radio announcer and sportscaster.
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 and George H. W.BushBush, George Herbert Walker,
1924–, 41st President of the United States (1989–93), b. Milton, Mass., B.A., Yale Univ., 1948. Career in Business and Government
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. CORE leader Roy InnisInnis, Roy
(Roy Emile Alfredo Innis), 1934–2017, American civil-rights leader, b. St. Croix, Virgin Islands. A member of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) from 1963, he was its national director (1968–82) and national chairman (1970–2017).
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 supported the nominations of Robert BorkBork, Robert Heron,
1927–2012, American jurist, b. Pittsburgh. He received his law degree from the Univ. of Chicago in 1953, and was professor of law at Yale (1962–73, 1977–81). While serving as U.S.
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 (1987) and Clarence ThomasThomas, Clarence,
1948–, associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1991–), b. Pin Point (Savannah), Ga. Raised in a poor family, he graduated (1974) from the Yale Law School and became a prominent black conservative active in Republican causes.
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 (1991) to the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1996–98, Innis led teams that monitored elections in Nigeria. By 1999, CORE had about 100,000 members in 5 regional groups, 39 state groups, and 116 local groups.

Bibliography

See study by A. Meier and E. Rudwick (1973).

References in periodicals archive ?
AD-510," box 193, General Correspondence, Cincinnati Office, RG 96; Mimi Feingold, "Parish Scouting Report--Summer Project, Pointe Coupee Parish," 14 April 1964, 2, file 20, box 1, Congress of Racial Equality, Sixth Congressional District Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin (hereafter cited as CORE Sixth Congressional District Papers); "Report for Pointe Coupee Parish," n.
The Congress of Racial Equality, symbolically, became a black power organization.
187) New organizations such as the Congress of Racial Equality, and new leaders, such as Martin Luther King Jr.
As a leader in the Fellowship of Reconciliation in the 1940s, as a founder of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), as the main organizer of the Freedom Rides of 1961, he had been centrally engaged in almost every element of the nonviolent action movement that challenged and eventually overcame the deadly anti-democratic poison of legalized racial segregation in America.
As one of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality in 1942, Farmer was called one of the Big Four civil rights leaders in the 1960s, with King, NAACP chief Roy Wilkins and Urban League head Whitney Young.
Muste played in founding the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in 1942 and in organizing CORE's pioneering actions against racial segregation, including restaurant sit-ins and the first Freedom Ride in 1947.
The insert included a December 26, 1995, letter to President Clinton from Roy Innis, national chairman of the Congress of Racial Equality, and a letter to the editor from the Reverend Maurice A.
Du Bois; James Farmer, co-founder of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE); Louis Farrakhan, leader of the Nation of Islam; Pan-Africanist and black repatriation advocate Marcus Garvey; voting rights activist Fannie Lou Hamer; former presidential candidate Jesse Jackson; filmmaker Spike Lee; Malcolm X; Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall; Black Panther founder Huey P.
Supporting the appellants in an amici curiae brief to overturn the code of the District of Columbia were the attorneys general of 13 states, and representatives of the Second Amendment Foundation, the Congress of Racial Equality, the American Civil Rights Union, and the National Rifle Association.
Her life changed while an undergraduate at Florida A&M University in the summer of 1959, when she and her sister Priscilla attended a meeting about nonviolent direct action conducted by CORE, the Congress of Racial Equality, one of the leading civil rights groups of the time.
The response to this slow process of re-integration was increased external pressure from both the black press and civil rights groups, like the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
Sandra Moore, vice president of the Congress of Racial Equality, said the price hikes are causing problems for people involved in welfare-to-work training programs.

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