One of the principal issues which the book explores and which the Congress system
struggled with was what actions against the post-Napoleonic order would or should trigger collective action against a potential challenge to that order.
Democratic centralism is an organization principle of the governing Communist Party of China, as well as national organizations, which links the CPC and the national mechanism based on the people's congress system
Under the people's congress system
, the National People's Congress (NPC) is the highest organ of state power, and its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPCSC).
Chapter 3 describes how the PPCs had tactically woven a network inside and outside the people's congress system
to nurture a favorable environment for their own institutionalization and power expansion.
In Europe, in place of Napoleon, came an attempt to develop a practice of collective security through a Congress system
and Tsar Alexander's Holy Alliance of Christian monarchs (or at least those of Russia, Austria and Prussia), designed to maintain the new order.
Though he overrates British power in 1815, he convincingly proves that Britain did well to offer France generous terms and prolong the Quadruple Alliance--which won the Napoleonic Wars--as a peace-regulating congress system
into the 1820s.
(8) The most systematic attempts to give international society the capacity to act came, however, in the Congress System
that followed the Napoleonic Wars and in its successor, the Concert of Europe.
This means voting is the base for the leadership structure of the party, the party's Congress system
and local shura in any area.
These were included in her guide and, based on the Library of Congress system
and her own reference experience, she attempted to make this special collection more accessible.
According to Rajni Kothari, another careful student of the organization, the Congress system
was based upon factional alliances within the party and between these party factions and non-party interest groups.
These, in turn, which Kothari (1989, 22-23) calls "parties of pressure," perform the role of preventing the ruling "party of consensus" from straying too far from "the balance of effective public opinion." Hence, he assigns a separate conceptual category to India's party system, uniquely occupied by the Indian case: the "Congress system
."(4) One important conclusion that emerges from this classificatory exercise is to highlight the vast differences between the Congress system
, with virtually permanent rule by a centrist party, and the Westminster-style two-party system, with alternation in office by right-wing and left-wing parties.