: A myriad of functions extending beyond assembly of gap junction channels.
. In atherosclerosis, expression of Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 varies
Valiuniene et al., "Human mesenchymal stem cells make cardiac connexins
and form functional gap junctions," The Journal of Physiology, vol.
Spray, "Cardiac connexins
: genes to nexus," in Cardiovascular Gap Junctions, S.
For example connexin
43, a major connexin
subtype in astrocytes, changes its expression in ischemia and stroke .
However, with their topography and discovery being lumped with the gap junction field (i.e., connexin
), they were thought for a long time to be more similar to connexin-based proteins.
Kamasawa et al., "Ultrastructural localization of connexins
(Cx36, Cx43, Cx45), glutamate receptors and aquaporin-4 in rodent olfactory mucosa, olfactory nerve and olfactory bulb," Journal of Neurocytology, vol.
Bennett, "Cell membrane permeabilization via connexin
hemichannels in living and dying cells," Experimental Cell Research, vol.
Nevertheless, the bulk of the literature reports a reduced gap junctional communication in many tumor types, as a result of either downregulated expression of connexins
or their inability to form functional junctions.
Growing evidences from both animal experiments and clinical observations indicate that apoptosis, plays a key role in myocardial reperfusion injury.7-11 The role of mitochondrial ion channels such as Bcl-2 in apoptosis is well-documented and, it is also likely that additional ion channels formed by the connexin
43 (Cx43) protein may play a similar role in cardiac myocyte apoptosis.12-25
Gap junctions formed by connexins
(Cx) play an important role in transmitting signals between bone cells, which are responsible for bone formation and bone remodeling.
Increased expression of connexins
26 and 43 in lymph node metastases of breast cancer.