Gallic Wars

(redirected from Conquest of Gaul)

Gallic Wars

(găl`ĭk), campaigns in GaulGaul
, Lat. Gallia, ancient designation for the land S and W of the Rhine, W of the Alps, and N of the Pyrenees. The name was extended by the Romans to include Italy from Lucca and Rimini northwards, excluding Liguria.
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 led by Julius CaesarCaesar, Julius
(Caius Julius Caesar), 100? B.C.–44 B.C., Roman statesman and general. Rise to Power

Although he was born into the Julian gens, one of the oldest patrician families in Rome, Caesar was always a member of the democratic or popular party.
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 in his two terms as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul, Transalpine Gaul, and Illyricum (58 B.C.–51 B.C.). Caesar's first campaign was to prevent the Helvetii (who lived N of the Lake of Geneva) from crossing the Roman territory Provincia (Provence) on their way to a new home in SW Gaul. Inspired by Orgetorix, they had started from the Alps northwestward with Caesar in pursuit, but he split their forces as they crossed the Saône, and pursued them to BibracteBibracte
, former capital of the Aedui, site atop Mont Beuvray, central France. There Caesar defeated (58 B.C.) the Helvetii (see Gallic Wars). Excavations on the site have revealed a Gallic town.
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, where he defeated them. In the same year the Aedui asked Caesar's help against the German AriovistusAriovistus
, fl. 58 B.C., Germanic chieftain, leader of the Suebi. He crossed the Rhine c.71 B.C., defeated the Aedui, and came to dominate much of Gaul (see Gallic Wars). In 60 B.C.
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, whom Caesar routed. In 57 B.C., Caesar pacified Belgica (roughly Belgium). In the winter of the same year an anti-Roman confederacy was formed, and in 56 B.C. Caesar attacked its leaders, the Veneti, who maintained a fleet in what is now the Gulf of Morbihan, Brittany. He defeated them after building ships of his own. In 55 B.C., Caesar went to the Low Countries to repel a group of invading Germans and, as a punitive measure, in turn invaded German territory, crossing the Rhine on a bridge he built near Cologne. He then went to Britain on a brief exploring expedition. In 54 B.C. he invaded Britain and defeated the Britons and their leader Cassivellaunus. The following winter the Roman legions were quartered separately because of the scarcity of food, and some Belgian tribes led by AmbiorixAmbiorix
, fl. 54 B.C., Gallic chieftain of the Eburones (in what is now central Belgium). He had been favorably treated by the Romans, but he joined another tribe in attacking Julius Caesar's legates. When he heard of Caesar's approach, he fled across the Rhine.
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 raised a revolt. One legion was utterly defeated and another, under Quintus CiceroCicero, Quintus Tullius,
c.102 B.C.–43 B.C., Roman general; brother of Cicero the orator. After service in Asia he accompanied Julius Caesar to Britain (55 B.C.); wintered in Gaul (54 B.C.), where he fought off the attacks of Ambiorix; and went to Cilicia (51 B.C.
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, was in dire straits when Caesar arrived and routed the rebels. In 53 B.C., Caesar put down another Belgian revolt and entered Germany again. But the real test came when, in the dead of winter, Caesar, in Italy, learned that all central Gaul had raised a revolt, organized by VercingetorixVercingetorix
, d. 46 B.C., leader of the Gauls, a chieftain of the Arverni. He was the leader of the great revolt against the Romans in 52 B.C. Julius Caesar, upon hearing of the trouble, rushed to put it down.
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. With incredible speed and brilliant tactics, Caesar crossed the Alps and suppressed the Gauls. After 51 B.C., Caesar moved around Gaul putting down the last signs of disorder. Caesar's Gallic Wars were the theater in which he displayed his abilities, and his organization of the new territory was the seed of modern France. When Caesar became proconsul, he received a wide strip along the Mediterranean beyond the Alps; when he gave up his command, his territory included everything from the Rhine to the Pyrenees, from the Alps to the Atlantic. The prime source of the Gallic Wars is Caesar's own commentaries, De bello Gallico.


See also T. R. Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (2d ed. 1911).

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References in classic literature ?
This time, however, there was no question either of the triumph of Pompey or of Caesar; neither of the defeat of Mithridates, nor of the conquest of Gaul. The procession was as placid as the passing of a flock of lambs, and as inoffensive as a flight of birds sweeping through the air.
In the one case, what happens is that I remember the content "eating my breakfast"; in the other case, I assent to the content "Caesar's conquest of Gaul occurred." In the latter case, but not in the former, the pastness is part of the content believed.
Or like the French are not going to ask the Italians to beg forgiveness for Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul.'
Beginning with Julius Caesar's conquest of Gaul in the first century BC, "A History of France" by John Julius Norwich is a study of French history comprising a cast of legendary characters ranging from Charlemagne, Louis XIV and Napoleon, to Joan of Arc and Marie Antionette, it chronicles France's often violent, always fascinating history.
Julius Caesar was responsible for the deaths of at least 1,000,000 people in his conquest of Gaul, a campaign that made him so popular he was able to seize power in Rome.
“Sextius Baculus is the only Centurion Caesar mentioned by name in his book “The Conquest of Gaul,” said J.M.
For some of the French Jacobins, however, the Frankish conquest of Gaul did not so much bring down a failing empire as it subjugated the native Celtic population.
In The Conquest of Gaul Caesar said Celtic Gauls claimed descent from Father Dis, a god of death, darkness and the underworld.
In the early 1860s Napoleon III, Emperor of France, sponsored a spectacular series of archaeological excavations to identify the locations of the battles described by Julius Caesar in his account of the Roman conquest of Gaul. The most ambitious of these took place at the Gallic stronghold of Alesia (Alise Ste Reine in Burgundy), the scene in 52 BC of the decisive battle of Caesar's campaign.
Polfer will take the audience back to the three centuries following the conquest of Gaul by Julius Caesar (50 B.C.) and the administrative reorganization under Augustus.
His conquest of Gaul arguably shaped the development of western Europe, although Goldsworthy points out that Gaul was ripe for colonization, and some other Roman would probably have conquered it had Caesar not.
Anyone who has ever studied Latin knows the difference by simply repeating the famous dictum of Julius Caesar about his conquest of Gaul, in the vulgar and elite Latin.