Conrad Hal Waddington

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Waddington, Conrad Hal


Born Nov. 8, 1905, in Eve-sham, Worcestershire; died Sept. 26, 1975, in Edinburgh. British biologist. Fellow of the Royal Society of London from 1947.

Waddington graduated from Cambridge University in 1927. From 1933 to 1945 he taught embryology at Cambridge, and in 1946 he became a professor of animal genetics at the University of Edinburgh. From 1961 to 1967 he was president of the International Union of Biological Sciences. His major work dealt with embryology, evolutionary genetics, and theoretical biology. Waddington became an honorary member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960 and of the Finnish Academy of Sciences in 1967.


Introduction to Modern Genetics. New York, 1939.
Principles of Embryology. London, 1956.
The Ethical Animal. London, 1960.
The Nature of Life. London, 1961.
Principles and Problems of Development and Differentiation. London, 1966.
Behind Appearance. Cambridge, 1970.
In Russian translation:
Organizatory i geny. Moscow, 1947.
Morfogenez igenetika. Moscow, 1964.
Na puti k teoreticheskoi biologii [vol. 1.] Moscow, 1970.
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(3.) The founder of General Systems Theory was an early twentieth century biologist, Ludwig von Bertalanffy; another great proponent was Conrad Waddington.
But it was Conrad Waddington who "formulated the concept of the epigenetic landscape, published in its mature form in 1957, to represent the way that developmental decisions are made" (Slack, 2002).