conservatism

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conservatism,

in politics, the desire to maintain, or conserve, the existing order. Conservatives value the wisdom of the past and are generally opposed to widespread reform. Modern political conservatism emerged in the 19th cent. in reaction to the political and social changes associated with the eras of the French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. By 1850 the term conservatism, probably first used by Chateaubriand, generally meant the politics of the rightright,
in politics, the more conservative groups in the political spectrum, in contrast to the radical left and the liberal center. The designation stems from the seating of the nobility on the right side of the presiding officer in the French National Assembly of 1789.
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. The original tenets of European conservatism had already been formulated by Edmund BurkeBurke, Edmund,
1729–97, British political writer and statesman, b. Dublin, Ireland. Early Writings

After graduating (1748) from Trinity College, Dublin, he began the study of law in London but abandoned it to devote himself to writing.
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, Joseph de MaistreMaistre, Joseph de
, 1753–1821, French writer and diplomat. Born in Savoy, he was Sardinian ambassador at St. Petersburg from 1803 to 1817. A passionate Roman Catholic and royalist, he was master of a rigidly logical doctrine and the possessor of a great store of knowledge.
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, and others. They emphasized preserving the power of king and aristocracy, maintaining the influence of landholders against the rising industrial bourgeoisie, limiting suffrage, and continuing ties between church and statechurch and state,
the relationship between the religion or religions of a nation and the civil government of that nation, especially the relationship between the Christian church and various civil governments.
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. The conservative view that social welfare was the responsibility of the privileged inspired passage of much humanitarian legislation, in which English conservatives usually led the way. In the late 19th cent. great conservative statesmen, notably Benjamin DisraeliDisraeli, Benjamin, 1st earl of Beaconsfield
, 1804–81, British statesman and author. He is regarded as the founder of the modern Conservative party.
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, exemplified the conservative tendency to resort to moderate reform in order to preserve the foundations of the established order. By the 20th cent. conservatism was being redirected by erstwhile liberal manufacturing and professional groups who had achieved many of their political aims and had become more concerned with preserving them from attack by groups not so favored. Conservatism lost its predominantly agrarian and semifeudal bias, and accepted democratic suffrage, advocated economic laissez-fairelaissez-faire
[Fr.,=leave alone], in economics and politics, doctrine that an economic system functions best when there is no interference by government. It is based on the belief that the natural economic order tends, when undisturbed by artificial stimulus or regulation, to
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, and opposed extension of the welfare state. This form of conservatism, which is best seen in highly industrialized nations, was exemplified by President ReaganReagan, Ronald Wilson
, 1911–2004, 40th president of the United States (1981–89), b. Tampico, Ill. In 1932, after graduation from Eureka College, he became a radio announcer and sportscaster.
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 in the United States and Prime Minister ThatcherThatcher, Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, Baroness,
1925–2013, British political leader. Great Britain's first woman prime minister, nicknamed the "Iron Lady" for her uncompromising political stance, Thatcher served longer than any other British prime minister in the 20th
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 in Great Britain. It has been flexible and receptive to moderate change, favors the maintenance of order on social issues, and actively supports deregulation and privatization in the economic sphere. Conservatism should be distinguished both from a reactionary desire for the past and the radical right-wing ideology of fascismfascism
, totalitarian philosophy of government that glorifies the state and nation and assigns to the state control over every aspect of national life. The name was first used by the party started by Benito Mussolini, who ruled Italy from 1922 until the Italian defeat in World
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 and National Socialism.

Bibliography

See R. Kirk, The Conservative Mind (rev. ed. 1960); J. Habermas, The New Conservatism (1989); T. Honderich, Conservatism (1991); C. Robin, The Reactionary Mind (2011).

conservatism

  1. any social and political doctrine which seeks to defend the institutions and social values of the existing order.
  2. any relatively stable set of POLITICAL ATTITUDES in support of the status quo, i.e. policies which seek to sustain or renovate rather than reconstruct the social fabric. As such, conservatism is the opposite of radicalism.
  3. support for the British Conservative Party. Conservative political ideology, in its modern forms, first manifested itself as a reaction to the French Revolution. Edmund Burke, in his Reflections on the French Revolution (1790), produced a classic statement in defence of the old order. His central argument was that the established social and political institutions should be defended because they existed; they had grown ‘organically’. Hence, they were a better guide to action than any theoretical construction, no matter how rational the latter may seem. Burke's ideas have provided a core theme. Conservatism has rarely been based on any overtly stated political philosophy, since the danger is that it could be regarded as ‘abstract’ and ‘ideological’.
Another persistent theme of traditional conservatism has been that the social order must be maintained by a leadership composed of ÉLITES holding key positions of political responsibility The STATE is seen as playing a central role in guaranteeing the social order, authority, and the maintenance of social hierarchy Inequalities are seen as necessary elements of society Conservatives also stress the importance of custom and tradition as prerequisites of a stable social order. MANNHEIM (1953), however, distinguishes between conservatism and ‘static traditionalism’. Conservative politics has often involved changes which have been seen as necessary for the preservation of the social order: renovation rather than reconstruction of the social fabric. Such notions rest on another central theme in conservative thought, the belief that the mass of people, because of their inherent qualities, including ignorance and selfishness, are unlikely to create a satisfactory social order through their own efforts. See also WORKING-CLASS CONSERVATISM, DEFERENCE, NEW RIGHT, THATCHERISM, PROPERTY.

Conservatism

 

adherence to all that is old, outmoded, and stagnant and hostility and opposition to progress and to everything that is new and progressive in society, science, technology, and art.

Conservatism

Apley, George
scion of an old Boston society family, he exemplifies its traditions and remains in old-fashioned mediocrity. [Am. Lit.: The Late George Apley in Magill I, 499]
Conservative party
British political party, once called the Tory party. [Br. Hist.: NCE, 632]
Daughters of the American Revolution
(D.A.R) conservative society of female descendants of Revolutionary War soldiers. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 132]
elephant
symbol of the Republican party. [Am. Hist.: Misc.]
John Birch Society
ultraconservative, anti-Communist organization. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1421]
laissez-faire
political doctrine that an economic system functions best without governmental interference. [Politics: Misc.]
Luddites
arch-conservative workmen; smashed labor-saving machinery (1779). [Br. Hist.: Espy, 107]
Republican Party
U.S. political party, generally espousing a conservative platform. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 424]
Warbucks, Daddy
espouses a reactionary law-and-order society threatened by decadence, bureaucracy, and loss of Puritan virtues. [Comics: Berger, 84]
References in periodicals archive ?
Hawley devotes two substantial chapters to the ups and downs of libertarian influence on the conservative movement.
All students of the conservative movement know about the marginalization of Robert Welch and other leaders of the John Birch Society.
Many laity of the Conservative Movement are shaken by assertions that the Torah evolved over many centuries.
Maybe the variable on both of these counts is not the conservative movement, but American exceptionalism--but then, the defense of American exceptionalism today tends to be increasingly a conservative project.
It is, rather, certain critical constituencies within the conservative movement that have made that designation so difficult for many to comprehend and perhaps harder for its designees to bear.
In short, Middendorf views Goldwater's candidacy as the foundation of the modern conservative movement and suggests that the Arizona senator lost due to a combination of sabotage, subterfuge, and inexperience.
The modern conservative movement has always seen itself as a populist insurgency, and liberals misapprehend it when they see the movement as an unswerving ally of big business.
The inaugural column, entitled 'Where Does the Conservative Movement Go from Here?
To fill in the part of Judaism's map that delineates the Conservative movement, Dorff surveys a small variety of non-Conservative legal theorists to the right and to the left of that movement, from the modern Orthodox Yeshayahu Leibowitz to the even-more-modern Orthodox David Hartmann, to the 1999 Statement of Principles of the Central Conference of American Rabbis, the umbrella organization for the rabbinate of the Reform movement, to some legal theorists on the farther left, Arthur Waskow, Arthur Green, and, finally, a brief discussion of Eugene Borowitz, whom Dorff characterizes as "on the left border of Conservative Judaism" (p.
WHITE PROTESTANT NATION: THE RISE OF THE AMERICAN CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT is a full history of the modern conservative movement from its beginnings in the 1920s to current issues affecting its status and well-being.
The conservative movement in America will be greatly enhanced by courting Hispanics.
1) It should also be stated that, needless to say, the so-called conservative movement has had many admirable features.

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