The top-down character of consociationalism
opens it to the charges that groups whose rights are to be protected are not themselves formed or even identified in democratic ways and that in some circumstances consociational solutions reinforce and perhaps even create politicized ethnic divisions.
Active involvement of neighboring countries into domestic politics of BiH is another major obstacle to consociationalism
as they encourage local political leaders to continue defending their etno-nationalist positions while rejecting and obstructing the functioning of the central state government.
autonomy aspects of consociationalism
, Lijphart's vision of
DEMOCRACY 96, 96109 (2004) (responding to consociationalism
's critics, especially Horowitz); John McGarry & Brendan O'Leary, Consociational Theory, Northern Ireland's Conflict, and its Agreement.
(12) This is the reason that consociationalism
and federalism have been advanced as models of accommodating diversities and protecting minorities in a plural society.
It compares and contrasts consociationalism
with the covenantal political tradition that undergirds the social covenant initiatives.
Rather than forecast the division of power that must hold in a fractured society, as does consociationalism
, robust constitutionalism substitutes the "struggle to regulate political competition" so that the victors do not devour the process.
1786-1957), Alliance consociationalism
(1957-69) and NEP (New Economic Policy) Bumiputeraism (1971-91).
may have helped enhance Malaysia's internal security, but as it has been argued elsewhere, it helped legitimize a political structure to sustain the longevity of the ruling elites.
As a result, the role of education entered into a state of political moratorium within the boundaries of the 1946 National Pact (15) which accentuated consociationalism
as a "fair weather model" (16) of political settlement or a sort of "live and let live" pattern of multi-communal coexistence.
(27.) Andre-Paul Frognier, "The mixed nature of Belgian cabinets between majority rule and consociationalism
," European Journal of Political Research 16 (Spring 1988): 207-228.
, Centre, and Periphery in the Netherlands," in Mobilization, Center-Periphery Structures and Nation-Building, ed.